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IF CLAUSES (ŞART CÜMLELERİ) AYÇA ATEŞ İÖP-11090610148.

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... konulu sunumlar: "IF CLAUSES (ŞART CÜMLELERİ) AYÇA ATEŞ İÖP-11090610148."— Sunum transkripti:

1 IF CLAUSES (ŞART CÜMLELERİ) AYÇA ATEŞ İÖP

2 IF CLAUSES TYPE 1 TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 TYPE 3 MIXED TYPE MIXED TYPE

3 TYPE 1 IF CLAUSES MAİN CLAUSES Simple Present Present Progressive Present Perfect Modals Simple Present Will + Verb Going to + Verb Will be + V- ing Will have + Verb ModalsImperative

4 TYPE 1:True in the present or future İçimde bulunduğumuz anda ya da gelecekte, belli bir koşul yerine geldiğinde olabilecek olayları type 1- if clause ile ifade ederiz. İçimde bulunduğumuz anda ya da gelecekte, belli bir koşul yerine geldiğinde olabilecek olayları type 1- if clause ile ifade ederiz. If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go on a picnic. If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.

5 “If” in bağlı bulunduğu cümledeki eylem gelecek zamana ait olduğunda da, Future Tense yerine Simple Present kullanılır. “If” in bağlı bulunduğu cümledeki eylem gelecek zamana ait olduğunda da, Future Tense yerine Simple Present kullanılır. Perhaps she will come tomorrow. Then we will study together. Perhaps she will come tomorrow. Then we will study together. If she comes tomorrow, we will study together. If she comes tomorrow, we will study together.

6 1. Temel cümlede kullanabileceğimiz yapılar “Will”in varyasyonları (will be doing, will have done, will have been doing) “Will”in varyasyonları (will be doing, will have done, will have been doing) She applied to a computer firm last week, and she may get the job. If she is hired, she will be working there She applied to a computer firm last week, and she may get the job. If she is hired, she will be working there

7 May / Might / Could (Possibility) May / Might / Could (Possibility) If the weather continues like this, we may/might/could cancel the garden party at the weekend. If the weather continues like this, we may/might/could cancel the garden party at the weekend. ( Perhaps we will cancel the party.) ( Perhaps we will cancel the party.)

8 May (permission) and can (permission or ability) May (permission) and can (permission or ability) If you finish the test earlier than expected, you may/can leave the classroom. (permission) If you finish the test earlier than expected, you may/can leave the classroom. (permission)

9 Must, have to, have got to, (necessity); should, ought to, had better (advisability) and any expression of command, request, suggestion or advice Must, have to, have got to, (necessity); should, ought to, had better (advisability) and any expression of command, request, suggestion or advice (Necessity) (Necessity) If you don’t want to be late for the beginning of the film,you have to/must/have got to leave at once. If you don’t want to be late for the beginning of the film,you have to/must/have got to leave at once.

10 Temel cümlede simple present kullanımı çok yaygın değildir. Ancak alışkanlıklarımızdan belli bir koşul yerine geldiğinde genelde yaptığımız eylemlerden ve doğa olaylarından söz ediyorsak, temel cümlede simple present kullanabiliriz. Temel cümlede simple present kullanımı çok yaygın değildir. Ancak alışkanlıklarımızdan belli bir koşul yerine geldiğinde genelde yaptığımız eylemlerden ve doğa olaylarından söz ediyorsak, temel cümlede simple present kullanabiliriz. If you boil water, it evaporates. (“will evaporate”de kullanılabilir.) If you boil water, it evaporates. (“will evaporate”de kullanılabilir.)

11 2. “IF” li cümlede kullanabileceğimiz yapılar Can (permission or ability) Can (permission or ability) If you can pass the university exam, you will be one of the lucky ones. (ability) If you can pass the university exam, you will be one of the lucky ones. (ability) Have to (necessity) Have to (necessity) She has an exam tomorrow, so she may have to prepare for it tonight. She has an exam tomorrow, so she may have to prepare for it tonight. If she has to study tonight, she won’t be able to come to the cinema with us If she has to study tonight, she won’t be able to come to the cinema with us

12 Eğer konuşma sırasında devam etmekte olan bir eylemi ifade ediyorsak.”if” clause’da Present Continuous Tense kullanabiliriz. Eğer konuşma sırasında devam etmekte olan bir eylemi ifade ediyorsak.”if” clause’da Present Continuous Tense kullanabiliriz. If you are looking for your slippers, they are under the cupboard. If you are looking for your slippers, they are under the cupboard.

13 “If” li cümlede Present Perfect Tense’i, “Eğer işini bitirdiysen, tamamladıysan” gibi anlamlar vermek için kullanabiliriz. “If” li cümlede Present Perfect Tense’i, “Eğer işini bitirdiysen, tamamladıysan” gibi anlamlar vermek için kullanabiliriz. If you have finished reading that book, may l borrow it for a while? If you have finished reading that book, may l borrow it for a while?

14 Should Should “If”li cümlede “should” kullanmamız, olasılığın biraz daha az olduğunu vurgular. “If”li cümlede “should” kullanmamız, olasılığın biraz daha az olduğunu vurgular. If you need any help, l can help you. If you need any help, l can help you.

15 TYPE 2 IF CLAUSE MAİN CLAUSE Simple Past Past Progressive Were to + Verb Could / Had to / Should Would + Verb Would be + Verb-ing Would be able to + Verb Would have to + Verb Could / Might + Verb

16 TYPE 2: Untrue (Contrary to Fact) in the Present or Future Type 2-if clause, içinde bulunduğumuz anda ya da gelecekte olacak bir olayın tersini düşünüp koşul ileri sürmek ve bu hayali koşulun sonucunu ifade etmek için kullanılır. Type 2-if clause, içinde bulunduğumuz anda ya da gelecekte olacak bir olayın tersini düşünüp koşul ileri sürmek ve bu hayali koşulun sonucunu ifade etmek için kullanılır. Truth: l don’t have enough money now, so l can’t lend you any to buy that shirt.(present) Truth: l don’t have enough money now, so l can’t lend you any to buy that shirt.(present) Conditional:If l had enough money now, l would lend you some money to buy that shirt. Conditional:If l had enough money now, l would lend you some money to buy that shirt.

17 1. Temel cümlede kullanabileceğimiz yapılar Would and Would be doing: Would and Would be doing: l’ m not rich, so l can’t travel around the world l’ m not rich, so l can’t travel around the world If l were rich, l would travel around the world. If l were rich, l would travel around the world.

18 Could, would be able to, might and would have to Could, would be able to, might and would have to l don’t know any French, so l can’t help you with your French assingment now. l don’t know any French, so l can’t help you with your French assingment now. If l knew some French, l could help you with your French assingment now.(meaning: present) If l knew some French, l could help you with your French assingment now.(meaning: present)

19 2.”If”li cümlede kullanabileceğimiz yapılar Past form of “be” (was /were) Past form of “be” (was /were) If it weren’t wet now, we could go out for a walk.(meaning: present) If it weren’t wet now, we could go out for a walk.(meaning: present) If they weren’t out of town next week, we could /would visit them If they weren’t out of town next week, we could /would visit them

20 Anlam present ya da future olduğunda, if clause da Past Tense kullanılır. Anlam present ya da future olduğunda, if clause da Past Tense kullanılır. They won’t come to our party tomorrow,and l am disappointed. They won’t come to our party tomorrow,and l am disappointed. If they came to our party tomorrow, l would be happy. (meaning: future) If they came to our party tomorrow, l would be happy. (meaning: future)

21 Eğer devam etmekte olan bir eylemin (am/is/are doing) tersini düşünerek koşul cümlesi oluşturuyorsak if clause’da “was/were doing” kullanabiliriz. Eğer devam etmekte olan bir eylemin (am/is/are doing) tersini düşünerek koşul cümlesi oluşturuyorsak if clause’da “was/were doing” kullanabiliriz. I am studying now, so I can’t help you. I am studying now, so I can’t help you. If I weren’t studying now, I could help you. If I weren’t studying now, I could help you.

22 Could and had to Could and had to I can’t leave work early today, so I can’t meet you to go to the cinema. I can’t leave work early today, so I can’t meet you to go to the cinema. If I could leave work early today, we could go to the cinema together. If I could leave work early today, we could go to the cinema together.

23 Type 2-If clause’ da “should” kullanmak, aynı type 1’de olduğu gibi, olasılığın daha az olduğunu vurgular. Type 2-If clause’ da “should” kullanmak, aynı type 1’de olduğu gibi, olasılığın daha az olduğunu vurgular. If I should see him tomorrow, I would give him your message. If I should see him tomorrow, I would give him your message.

24 TYPE 3 IF CLAUSE MAİN CLAUSE Past Perfect Past Perfect Progressive Had had to + Verb Had been able to + Verb Would have + Verb Could have + Verb Might + Verb Would have been + V-ing Would have been able to+V Would have had to+ Verb

25 TYPE 3: Untrue (contrary to fact) In The Past Type 3-if clauses, geçmişte olmuş olayların tersini düşünüp, bir koşul ileri sürmek ve bu koşulun sonucunu ifade etmek için kullanılır. Type 3-if clauses, geçmişte olmuş olayların tersini düşünüp, bir koşul ileri sürmek ve bu koşulun sonucunu ifade etmek için kullanılır. Truth:She didn’t study hard enough, so she didn’t pass the test. Conditional: If she had studied hard enough, she would have passed the test.

26 1.Temel Cümlede Kullanabileceğimiz yapılar Would have done and would have been doing Would have done and would have been doing She didn’t work regularly, so she didn’t finish the project in time. She didn’t work regularly, so she didn’t finish the project in time. If she had worked regularly, she would have finished the project in time If she had worked regularly, she would have finished the project in time

27 Would have had to and would have been able to Would have had to and would have been able to I ran to the bus stop, so I was able to catch the bus. I ran to the bus stop, so I was able to catch the bus. If I hadn’t run to the bus stop, I wouldn’t have been able to catch the bus. If I hadn’t run to the bus stop, I wouldn’t have been able to catch the bus.

28 Might have done (possibility) and could have done (permission and ability) Might have done (possibility) and could have done (permission and ability) He had the necessary qualifications, so he got the job. He had the necessary qualifications, so he got the job. If he hadn’t had the necessary qualifications, he might not got the job. If he hadn’t had the necessary qualifications, he might not got the job.

29 2.”If” li Cümlede Kullanabileceğimiz Yapılar Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense There weren’t enough people, so we had to cancel the meeting. There weren’t enough people, so we had to cancel the meeting. If there had been enough people, we would have held the meeting. If there had been enough people, we would have held the meeting.

30 Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous She was sleeping when I got home, so I couldn’t give her the good news right away. She was sleeping when I got home, so I couldn’t give her the good news right away. If she hadn’t been sleeping when I got home, I could have given her the good news right away. If she hadn’t been sleeping when I got home, I could have given her the good news right away.

31 Had had to and had been able to Had had to and had been able to I had to work on my project last night, so I missed my favourite programme on TV. I had to work on my project last night, so I missed my favourite programme on TV. If I hadn’t had to work on my project last night, I could have watched my favourite programme on TV. If I hadn’t had to work on my project last night, I could have watched my favourite programme on TV.

32 MİXED TYPE IF CLAUSE MAİN CLAUSE Past Perfect Past Perfect progressive Had had to+Verb Had been able to +Verb Would +Verb Would be +Verb Would be able to+Verb Could/might+Verb IF CLAUSE MAİN CLAUSE Simple Past Past Progressive Could/had to/should Would/could/might have+V Would have been+ V-ing Would have been able to +V Would have had to+V

33 MIXED TYPE “Mixed Type” if clause, temel cümledeki tense ile koşul cümlesindeki tense’in farklı type’lara ait olduğunu ifade eder. Örneğin, koşul cümlesinde type 3 kullanılırken, temel cümlede type 2 kullanabiliriz. Ya da tersi. Ancak burada, eylem if clause dışında gerçek tense’lerinin ne olduğuna çok dikkat etmeliyiz. “Mixed Type” if clause, temel cümledeki tense ile koşul cümlesindeki tense’in farklı type’lara ait olduğunu ifade eder. Örneğin, koşul cümlesinde type 3 kullanılırken, temel cümlede type 2 kullanabiliriz. Ya da tersi. Ancak burada, eylem if clause dışında gerçek tense’lerinin ne olduğuna çok dikkat etmeliyiz.

34 If I hadn’t spent all my money foolishly, I wouldn’t be broke now. If I hadn’t spent all my money foolishly, I wouldn’t be broke now. If he weren’t a rude man, he wouldn’t have rebuked his wife in front of others. If he weren’t a rude man, he wouldn’t have rebuked his wife in front of others. If he had studied hard enough for the test, he wouldn’t be sorry about his score now. If he had studied hard enough for the test, he wouldn’t be sorry about his score now. If we hadn’t missed the bus because of you, we wouldn’t be waiting here in the rain now. If we hadn’t missed the bus because of you, we wouldn’t be waiting here in the rain now.

35 UNLESS Unless olumsuz bir anlama sahip olduğu için bağlı bulunduğu cümle genellikle olumlu yapıdadır. Bu nedenle unless bazı cümlelerde “if….not” yerine kullanılabilir. Unless olumsuz bir anlama sahip olduğu için bağlı bulunduğu cümle genellikle olumlu yapıdadır. Bu nedenle unless bazı cümlelerde “if….not” yerine kullanılabilir. You can’t pass the exam if you don’t study. You can’t pass the exam if you don’t study. You can’t pass the exam unless you study. You can’t pass the exam unless you study.

36 THE END PREPARED BY AYÇA ATEŞ


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