... konulu sunumlar: "Etatism in the Turkish Economy 1933 1938 1945 Etatism Period War Economy."— Sunum transkripti:
Etatism in the Turkish Economy Etatism Period War Economy
Reasons of the Etatism Policy External Factors: Great Depression Law export and import prices after the Great Depression There was rapid industrialization in the USSR.
Reasons of the Etatism Policy Domestic Factors: Falls in production and national income Heavy tax burden especially on farmers Serious falls in exports Foreign exchange bottlenecks Troubles in imports of raw materials Falls in employment
Reasons of the Etatism Policy Domestic Factors: The need for domestic production of previously imported goods Private manufacturers were not successful The reaction to the CHF government in Anatolia
Boratav, K. Türkiye’de Devletçilik s.143 “... Yeni gümrük tarifesinin arkasına sığınarak dünya fiyatından birkaç misli yükseğe satan basit ve şımarık bir sanayi türemeye başlamıştı....İşte demir telleri keserek çivi yapan, çiviyi dış piyasa fiyatının on misline satan, milli sanayi olduğu için demir telleri de hammadde diye gümrüksüz sokan şu çivi fabrikası...”
Boratav, K. Türkiye’de Devletçilik s.145 “.... Samsun’a geldiğimiz zaman başka yerde görmediğimiz bir manzara karşısında kaldık: Gece her tarafta fevkalade inzibati tedbirler alınmıştı. İstasyondan itibaren bütün yollar sürgülü askerler tarafından tutulmuştu. Bu suretle askerden ve polisten mada kimseyi görmeden, adeta bir düşman şehrine henüz giren bir kumandan gibi Gazi ve bizler otomobillerle Gazi’nin misafir edileceği konağa geldik.....”
Definition of Etatism Moderates: Government should take action if private entrepreneurs fails to do something Radicals: Government must do everthing that ensures public interest
Etatism in Turkey State-owned business enterprises The establishment and control of the economic life
Etatism in Turkey 1932: The Soviet Committee headed by Prof. Orlof prepared the first report 1934: This report was accepted as the “First Five Year Industrial Plan”
Etatism in Turkey First Five Year Industrial Plan: Covers the period Industrial production must be based on agricultural products and natural resources Only exception: Industries that will provide high benefit to the society To substitute imports of consumption goods by domestic production The location of industry: Must be close to the natural and labor resources Priority given to: Textile, mining, paper, chemistry, glass and glassware, cement.
Etatism in Turkey Second Five Year Industrial Plan: period Aim was to produce intermediate and investment goods Could not be put into practice because of the WWII
Etatism in Turkey It was financed by domestic resources (taxes) High-technology Production costs were low (limited worker rights) Complements and encourages private sector Import substitution (consumption goods) Question: Why consumption goods but not capital goods are produced?
Etatism in Turkey: Results Industrialization started Trade surplus except 1938 Foreign firms that have privileges are liquidated Railways are nationalized State Economic Enterprises: Sümerbank, Etibank, Denizcilik Bankası etc.
Agriculture Distribution of state land Area planted increased 1932/1938: Turkish Grain Board Prices are volatile Tax burden on agriculture
Mining and Energy Importance given 1935: General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration The institute was made responsible of carrying out the necesarry studies, chemical and technological analysis, in order to search and to find mining and stone beds, and then to determine whether they are appropriate for operation or not, and also to educate engineers, assisting personnel and qualified employers for the sector. 1935: Etibank Mines are nationalized 1940: First oil well in Raman Not efficient Electricity production is deficient and costs are high.
Industry Domestic demand was satisfied by domestic production Most successful industry: Textile (80% of domestic demand) Sugar (No need for imports) Cement (exported) Iron-steel Average number of workers: 1933: 47; 1939:84 Problems: Increased import demand Agriculture-industry competition
International Trade Infant-industry argument Clearing agreements Trade surpluses except 1938 1934: Foreign Trade Office Terms of Trade are against Turkey
International Trade (million TL) YearExportsImportsBalance ,274,721, ,9149,8-4, ,4118,29, ,9126,292,8
National Income National income increased by 9% on average Pre-war period: Agriculture, Industry Post-war period: Services Income distribution problems
Period War economy State of war: Loss of labor force Reduced agricultural production Reduction in tax revenues Reduced imports Increased military expences
Capital Resources Money supply: Pre-war period: Rate of increase ≈0,5 % annual GDP Growth ≈5-6 % annual No inflation Post-war period: 483,3 % increase Inflation
Capital Resources Budget: Pre-war period: Budget surpluses 70% indirect taxes Post-war period: Increase in direct taxes New taxes: Varlık Vergisi, Toprak Mahsulleri Vergisi Rise in government expenditures
Measures 1940: National Protection Law 1940: Trade Office 1942: Varlık Vergisi Law No: 4305 “İktisadi şartların darlığından doğan güçlükleri istismar ederek yüksek kazançlar elde ettikleri halde kazançları ile mütenasip vergi vermeyenleri istihdaf etmekte ve içinde bulunduğumuz fevkalade vaziyetin icap ettirdiği fedakarlığa bunları da … iştirak ettirmek maksadını gütmektedir. Mükelleflerin mali (güçlerini) …halk mümessillerinden terekküp eden komisyonlar tayin edecektir.” (K. Boratav s.343) 1944: Agricultural Product Tax
Inflation Money supply increased Production decreased Inflation
Inflation To cope with inflation: Price controls Government purchased agricultural products at low prices Distribution of basic intermediate goods was done by government