... konulu sunumlar: "Etatism in the Turkish Economy"— Sunum transkripti:
1 Etatism in the Turkish Economy Etatism Period War Economy
2 Reasons of the Etatism Policy External Factors:Great DepressionThere was rapid industrialization in the USSR.Low export and import prices after the Great Depression
3 Reasons of the Etatism Policy Domestic Factors:Falls in production and national incomeSerious falls in exportsForeign exchange bottlenecksTroubles in imports of raw materialsFalls in employment
4 Reasons of the Etatism Policy Domestic Factors:The need for domestic production of previously imported goodsPrivate manufacturers were not successfulThe reaction to the CHF government in Anatolia
5 Boratav, K. Türkiye’de Devletçilik s.143 “... Yeni gümrük tarifesinin arkasına sığınarak dünya fiyatından birkaç misli yükseğe satan basit ve şımarık bir sanayi türemeye başlamıştı....İşte demir telleri keserek çivi yapan, çiviyi dış piyasa fiyatının on misline satan, milli sanayi olduğu için demir telleri de hammadde diye gümrüksüz sokan şu çivi fabrikası...”
6 Boratav, K. Türkiye’de Devletçilik s.145 “ .... Samsun’a geldiğimiz zaman başka yerde görmediğimiz bir manzara karşısında kaldık: Gece her tarafta fevkalade inzibati tedbirler alınmıştı. İstasyondan itibaren bütün yollar sürgülü askerler tarafından tutulmuştu. Bu suretle askerden ve polisten mada kimseyi görmeden, adeta bir düşman şehrine henüz giren bir kumandan gibi Gazi ve bizler otomobillerle Gazi’nin misafir edileceği konağa geldik.....” (1930)
7 Definition of Etatism Moderates: Radicals: Government should take action if private entrepreneurs fail to do somethingRadicals:Government must do everthing that ensures public interest
8 Etatism in Turkey State-owned business enterprises The establishment and control of the economic life
9 Etatism in Turkey1932: The Soviet Committee headed by Prof. Orlof prepared the first report1934: This report was accepted as the “First Five Year Industrialisation Plan”
10 Etatism in Turkey First Five Year Industrialisation Plan: Covers the periodIndustrial production must be based on agricultural products and natural resourcesOnly exception: Industries that will provide high benefit to the societyTo substitute imports of consumption goods by domestic productionThe location of industry: Must be near to the natural and labor resourcesPriority given to: Textile, mining, paper, chemistry, glass and glassware, cement.
11 Etatism in Turkey Second Five Year Industrial Plan: 1939- period Aim was to produce intermediate and investment goodsCould not be put into practice because of the WWII
12 Etatism in Turkey It was financed by domestic resources (taxes) High-technologyProduction costs were low (limited worker rights)Complements and encourages private sectorImport substitution (consumption goods)
13 Etatism in Turkey: Results Industrialisation startedBalanced budgetTrade surplus except 1938Foreign firms that have privileges were liquidatedRailways were nationalizedState Economic Enterprises:Sümerbank, Etibank, Denizcilik Bankası etc.
14 Agriculture Distribution of state land Area planted increased 1932/1938: Turkish Grain BoardPrices were volatile (domestic terms of trade)Tax burden on agriculture
15 Mining and Energy Importance given 1935: General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA)The institute was made responsible of carrying out the necesarry studies, chemical and technological analysis, in order to search and to find mining and stone beds, and then to determine whether they are appropriate for operation or not, and also to educate engineers, assisting personnel and qualified employers for the sector.1935: EtibankMines were nationalized1940: First oil well in RamanNot efficientElectricity production was deficient and costs were high.
16 Industry Domestic demand was satisfied by domestic production Most successful industries:Textile (80% of domestic demand)Sugar (No need for imports)Cement (exported)Iron-steelAverage number of workers:1933: 47; 1939:84Problems:Increased import demandAgriculture-industry competition
17 International Trade Infant-industry argument Clearing agreements Trade surpluses except 19381934: Foreign Trade OfficeTerms of Trade were against Turkey
18 International Trade (million TL) YearExportsImportsBalance193396,274,721,51938144,9149,8-4,91939127,4118,29,21945218,9126,292,8
19 National Income National income increased by 9% on average Pre-war period: Agriculture, IndustryPost-war period: ServicesIncome distribution problems
20 1940-1945 Period War economy State of war: Loss of labor force Reduced agricultural productionReduction in tax revenuesReduced importsIncreased military expences
22 Capital Resources Budget: Pre-war period: Post-war period: Budget surpluses70% indirect taxesPost-war period:Increase in direct taxesNew taxes: Varlık Vergisi, Toprak Mahsulleri VergisiRise in government expenditures
23 Measures 1940: National Protection Law 1940: Trade Office 1942: Wealth tax (Varlık Vergisi)Law No: 4305 “İktisadi şartların darlığından doğan güçlükleri istismar ederek yüksek kazançlar elde ettikleri halde kazançları ile mütenasip vergi vermeyenleri istihdaf etmekte ve içinde bulunduğumuz fevkalade vaziyetin icap ettirdiği fedakarlığa bunları da … iştirak ettirmek maksadını gütmektedir. Mükelleflerin mali (güçlerini) …halk mümessillerinden terekküp eden komisyonlar tayin edecektir.” (K. Boratav s.343)1944: Soil Products Tax (Toprak Mahsulleri Vergisi)