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Özefagus Hastalıkları Prof. Dr. Öge TAŞCILAR. Farinks ile mide arasında Musküler, elastik, kontraktil tüp Uzunluk 25-30 cm. Önce orta hat, sonra sağ,

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... konulu sunumlar: "Özefagus Hastalıkları Prof. Dr. Öge TAŞCILAR. Farinks ile mide arasında Musküler, elastik, kontraktil tüp Uzunluk 25-30 cm. Önce orta hat, sonra sağ,"— Sunum transkripti:

1 Özefagus Hastalıkları Prof. Dr. Öge TAŞCILAR

2 Farinks ile mide arasında Musküler, elastik, kontraktil tüp Uzunluk cm. Önce orta hat, sonra sağ, alt 1/3 sol Hiatustan geçip mide

3 Trake, troid, boyun damarları D.Torasikus, aorta ile komşu 4 Bölüm FaringoözefagiayalServikalTorakalAbdominal

4 Özefagus seyri boyunca 3 darlık: Servikal(Krikoid kıkırdak altında) Servikal(Krikoid kıkırdak altında) Torakal(Sol ana bronş ve aorta) Torakal(Sol ana bronş ve aorta) Abdominal (D. Hiatus geçildiği yer AÖS). Abdominal (D. Hiatus geçildiği yer AÖS).

5 MukozaSubmukoza Muskularis Propria Seroza (sadece abdomende) Mukoza İntraepitelyal Mukoza İntraepitelyal Mukoza Epitel Epitel Bazal Membran Bazal Membran Lamina Propria Lamina Propria Muskularis Mukoza Muskularis Mukoza

6 Özefagus Motilite Bozuklukları Özefagus Motilite Bozuklukları Akalazya Akalazya Diffüz Özefagiyel Spazm Diffüz Özefagiyel Spazm Özefagus Divertikülleri Özefagus Divertikülleri Hiatal herni Hiatal herni Gastroözefajiyel Reflü Hastalığı Gastroözefajiyel Reflü Hastalığı Barret Özefagus Barret Özefagus Özefagus Kanserleri Özefagus Kanserleri

7 Semptom:DisfajiRegürjitasyon Retrosternal yangı Göğüs ağrısı

8 Achalasia Etiology and Pathophysiology Peristalsis of lower two thirds of esophagus absent Peristalsis of lower two thirds of esophagus absent –Impairment of neurons that innervate esophagus –Unopposed contraction of LES LES pressure ↑ LES pressure ↑ Incomplete relaxation of LES Incomplete relaxation of LES Obstruction occurs at/near diaphragm Obstruction occurs at/near diaphragm

9 Achalasia Fig. 42-9

10 Achalasia Clinical Manifestations Gece regurjitasyon Gece regurjitasyon Aspirasyon Aspirasyon Pnömoni Pnömoni Bronşit Bronşit Akciğer abse Akciğer abse

11 Achalasia Diagnostic Studies Radiologic studies Radiologic studies Manometric studies of lower esophagus Manometric studies of lower esophagus Endoscopy Endoscopy

12 Achalasia Diagnostic Studies Endoskopi Endoskopi Özefagus dilatasyonu Özefagus dilatasyonu Gıda retansiyonu Gıda retansiyonu Manometri Manometri AÖS basıncı yüksek(>25 mm Hg) AÖS basıncı yüksek(>25 mm Hg) Relaksasyon olmaması Relaksasyon olmaması Aperistaltizm Aperistaltizm

13 Achalasia Komplikasyonlar: Respiratuar sistem en sık Respiratuar sistem en sık Pnömoni Pnömoni Atelektazi, bronşit, abse Atelektazi, bronşit, abse Bronşektazi Bronşektazi Hemoptizi Hemoptizi Etrafa bası Etrafa bası Premalign lezyon(%1-10) Premalign lezyon(%1-10)

14 Achalasia Treatment Drug therapy Drug therapy –Smooth muscle relaxants –Uzun etkili nitratlar –Ca channel blockers –Nitrogliserin –Botulinum toxin injection 1 to 2 years relief 1 to 2 years relief Symptomatic relief Symptomatic relief –Semisoft diet –Eating slowly –Drinking with meals

15 Achalasia Treatment Endoscopic pneumatic dilation Endoscopic pneumatic dilation

16 Achalasia CERRAHİ ENDİKASYON CERRAHİ ENDİKASYON Ciddi özefajit Ciddi özefajit İnfant İnfant Çok ilerlemiş, çok dilate, tortios Çok ilerlemiş, çok dilate, tortios Hasta cerrahi istiyorsa Hasta cerrahi istiyorsa Takibi zor olgularda Takibi zor olgularda

17 Achalasia Surgical therapy Surgical therapy –Heller myotomy –Özefagokardiyal myotomi

18 Diffüz Özefagus Spazmı Ciddi disfaji, göğüs ağrısı. Ciddi disfaji, göğüs ağrısı. Anjinayı taklit edebilir. Anjinayı taklit edebilir. Stress ile artar. Stress ile artar. Birlikte psikosomatik ağrılar sıktır. Birlikte psikosomatik ağrılar sıktır.

19 Diffüz Özefagus Spazmı Tedavi: Tedavi: Drug therapy Drug therapy –Uzun etkili nitratlar –Ca channel blockers –Nitrogliserin –Botulinum toxin injection 1 to 2 years relief 1 to 2 years relief Balon dilatation Balon dilatation

20 Diffüz Özefagus Spazmı Cerrahi Tedavi: Medikal tedavi başarısız ise Epiprenik divertikül oluşmuş ise Cerrahi; Laparoskopik Özefagomyotomi

21 Esophageal Diverticula Esophageal Diverticula Occur in three main areas Occur in three main areas –Zenker’s diverticulum Most common location Most common location –Traction diverticulum Near esophageal midpoint Near esophageal midpoint –Epiphrenic diverticulum Above the LES Above the LES

22 Sites for Occurrence of Esophageal Diverticula

23

24 Esophageal Diverticula Clinical Manifestations Symptoms Symptoms –Dysphagia –Regurgitation –Chronic cough –Aspiration –Weight loss

25 Esophageal Diverticula Complications Malnutrition Malnutrition Aspiration Aspiration Perforation Perforation

26 Esophageal Diverticula Diagnostic Studies Endoscopy Endoscopy Barium studies Barium studies

27 Esophageal Diverticula Surgery Surgery Zenker: Zenker: Krikofaringeal myotomi Krikofaringeal myotomi >2 cm ise Divertikülektomi+Krikofaringeal myotomi >2 cm ise Divertikülektomi+Krikofaringeal myotomi

28 Hiatal Hernia Herniation of portion of the stomach into esophagus through an opening or hiatus in diaphragm Herniation of portion of the stomach into esophagus through an opening or hiatus in diaphragm

29 Hiatal Hernia Clinical Manifestations May be asymptomatic May be asymptomatic Symptoms include Symptoms include –Heartburn After meal or lying supine After meal or lying supine –Dysphagia

30 Hiatal Hernia Diagnostic Studies Barium swallow Barium swallow –May show protrusion of gastric mucosa through esophageal hiatus Endoscopy Endoscopy –Visualize lower esophagus –Information on degree of inflammation or other problems

31 Hiatal Hernia Complications GERD GERD Esophagitis Esophagitis Hemorrhage from erosion Hemorrhage from erosion Stenosis Stenosis Ulcerations of herniated portion Ulcerations of herniated portion

32 Hiatal Hernia Complications Strangulation of hernia Strangulation of hernia Regurgitation with tracheal aspiration Regurgitation with tracheal aspiration Increased risk of respiratory problems Increased risk of respiratory problems

33 THERAPY Lifestyle modifications Lifestyle modifications –Eliminate alcohol –Stop smoking –Avoiding lifting/straining –Weight reduction, if appropriate

34 Hiatal Hernia Surgical Therapy Goals Goals –Reduce hernia –Provide acceptable lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure –Prevent movement of gastroesophageal junction

35 Hiatal Hernia Surgical Therapy Laparoscopically performed Nissen and Toupet techniques are standard antireflux surgeries Laparoscopically performed Nissen and Toupet techniques are standard antireflux surgeries Thoracic or open abdominal approach used in select cases Thoracic or open abdominal approach used in select cases

36 Nissen Fundoplication Fig. 42-5

37 GERH Mide içeriğinin distal özefagusa geçerek şikayet oluşturmasına denir. Mide içeriğinin distal özefagusa geçerek şikayet oluşturmasına denir. GERH 3 neden GERH 3 neden AÖS mekanik bozukluğu AÖS mekanik bozukluğu Yetersiz özefagus temizlenmesi Yetersiz özefagus temizlenmesi İntragastrik basınç artışı İntragastrik basınç artışı

38 GERH-tanı Üst GIS grafi Üst GIS grafi Anatomik yapının belirlenmesinde Anatomik yapının belirlenmesinde Özefagus-kardiya diyafragma ilişkisi Özefagus-kardiya diyafragma ilişkisi Endoskopi Endoskopi Diğer patolojilerin ekarte edilmesinde Diğer patolojilerin ekarte edilmesinde Özefajit tespitinde Özefajit tespitinde Özefagus manometri Özefagus manometri 24 saat özefagus pH testi 24 saat özefagus pH testi

39 GERH Komplikasyonlar Komplikasyonlar barret barret ülser ülser kanama kanama perforasyon perforasyon striktür striktür fibrozis fibrozis

40 GERH-tedavi Medikal Tedavi: Medikal Tedavi: Pozisyon Pozisyon Beslenme Beslenme AÖS basıncını artırmak AÖS basıncını artırmak Mide asidini azaltmak Mide asidini azaltmak Mide içi basıncı azaltmak Mide içi basıncı azaltmak Antiasit Antiasit H2 blokör, PPI H2 blokör, PPI Metpamid, Sisaprid Metpamid, Sisaprid

41 GERH Cerrahi Tedavi Cerrahi Tedavi Nissen Fundoplikasyon Nissen Fundoplikasyon

42 Esophageal Cancer Adenocarcinomas Adenocarcinomas Squamous cell Squamous cell

43 Esophageal Cancer Etiology and Pathophysiology Risk factors Risk factors –Smoking –Excessive alcohol intake –Barrett’s esophagus –Diets low in fruits and vegetables –Plummer Wilson sendromu –Lökoplaki –Mantar toksinleri v b. –Certain minerals and vitamins –Exposure to lye, asbestos, and metal –History of achalasia

44 Esophageal Cancer Etiology and Pathophysiology Majority of tumors located in middle and lower portion of esophagus Majority of tumors located in middle and lower portion of esophagus Malignant tumor Malignant tumor –Usually appears as ulcerated lesion –Obstruction in later stages

45 Esophageal Cancer Clinical Manifestations Progressive dysphagia is most common( Sıvı geçer katı geçmez) Progressive dysphagia is most common( Sıvı geçer katı geçmez) –Initially with meat, then soft foods and liquids Pain develops late Pain develops late –Substernal, epigastric, or back areas Weight loss Weight loss Regurgitation of blood-flecked esophageal contents Regurgitation of blood-flecked esophageal contents

46 Esophageal Cancer Diagnostic Studies Endoscopy with biopsy Endoscopy with biopsy Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) Barium swallow with fluoroscopy Barium swallow with fluoroscopy Computed tomography (CT) Computed tomography (CT) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) PET PET Bronchoscopic examination Bronchoscopic examination

47 Esophageal Cancer Complications Hemorrhage Hemorrhage Esophageal perforation with fistula formation Esophageal perforation with fistula formation Esophageal obstruction Esophageal obstruction Metastasis Metastasis –Liver and lung common

48 Esophageal Cancer Surgical procedures Surgical procedures –Esophagectomy Removal of part or all of the esophagus Removal of part or all of the esophagus –Esophagogastrostomy Resection of a portion of esophagus and anastomosis of remaining portion to stomach Resection of a portion of esophagus and anastomosis of remaining portion to stomach

49 Esophageal Cancer Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) –Removes superficial lesions –Submucosal neoplasms

50 Not candidates for surgery (esp. Squamous carcinoma) Radiation alone Radiation alone Combination chemoradiation Combination chemoradiation

51 Chemoradiation Additional 69 patients were treated with the same combined therapy and were analyzed. Additional 69 patients were treated with the same combined therapy and were analyzed. Similar results were obtained Similar results were obtained –Median survival : 17.2 months –3-year survival : 30% –5 yr survival :14%

52 NORMAL ESOPHAGUS Normal double contrast esophagram (barium coating and air distention) Effervescent granules release air with ingestion.

53 PATHOLOGY/RADIOLOGY CORRELATION X ray image Pathology image

54 ESOPHAGEAL CANCER Typical squamous cell carcinoma Poor prognosis from local extension into critical mediastinal structures. (esophagus lacks a serosa).

55 ESOPHAGEAL CANCER Distal malignancy may be adenocarcinoma due to Barrett’s esophagus - dysplastic change caused by chronic reflux of gastric contents.

56 CT ESOPHAGEAL CANCER CHEST CT PET/CT

57 ESOPHAGEAL VARICES LINEAR TUBULAR FILLING DEFECTS represent distended veins from shunting due to cirrhosis and portal hypertension

58 Extensive NODULAR filling defects in the esophagus in an immunocompromised patient are typical for candida esophagitis. Extensive NODULAR filling defects in the esophagus in an immunocompromised patient are typical for candida esophagitis. CANDIDA ESOPHAGITIS

59 Barium filled esophagus ACHALASIA Distended esophagus with distal stricture due to Achalasia - Failure of lower sphincter to relax – causing obstruction. Etiology is unknown. BIRD BEAK APPEARANCE Stricture due to cancer or reflux caused scarring have to be considered first.

60 Esophagus shows a linear tear of mucosa of distal esophagus due to vomiting with barium tracking into the wall. Full thickness tear or rupture (Boerhaave’s syndrome) can lead to mediastinitis and death. MALLORY-WEISS TEAR

61 NORMAL ESOPHAGUS DIAPHRAGM HIATAL HERNIA DIAPHRAGM *Note distended distal esophagus with herniation of gastric fundus into chest through esophageal hiatus.

62 HIATAL HERNIA L CXR FINDINGS Mass on chest X- ray posterior to heart may be a large hiatal hernia.

63 CT HIATAL HERNIA

64 SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION ERECT Multiple Dilated Loops of Small Bowel with Air/Fluid Levels Present at Different Heights Ng tube

65 SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION

66 String of Pearls Sign UPRIGHT

67 PARTIAL SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION DILATED BOWEL NON DILATED BOWEL OBSTRUCTION * Proximal loops are dilated and distal loops are collapsed indicating an obstruction. ZONE OF TRANSITION

68 Proximal loops are dilated and distal loops are collapsed indicating an obstruction. Obstruction most likely due to adhesions in a patient with history of abdominal surgery ZONE OF TRANSISITON CT - SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION PROXIMAL DILATED BOWEL DISTAL NORMAL BOWEL

69 HERNIA SM. BOWEL BARIUM STUDY CT Note hernia in right lower quadrant on both exams accounting for obstruction. Hernia is likely cause if there is no history of prior surgery.

70 POST – OP ADYNAMIC ILEUS LARGE AND SMALL BOWEL SYMMETRIC dilatation of large and small bowel is seen normally as a post operative ileus. COLON SM. BOWEL

71 sutures Colon resection POST – OP ADYNAMIC ILEUS

72 CHROHN’S DISEASE Narrowed distal ileum due to chronic inflammation is typical for Crohn’s disease. normal

73 APPENDICOLITH Occasionally a calculus (appendicolith) is seen as the source of appendicitis due to obstruction of the appendix and inflammation.

74 ACUTE APPENDICITIS NORMAL DISTENDED APPENDIX WITH LOCAL INFLAMATION.

75 DRAINAGE ABSCESS Catheter has been placed by radiologist using CT guidance draining abscess collection

76 HEPATIC FLEXURE SPLENIC FLEXURE TRANSVERSE COLON CECUM ASCENDING COLON DESENDING COLON TERMINAL ILEUM NORMAL COLON Normal air contrast barium enema (double contrast-air and barium per rectum) shows filling of colon with air and barium retrograde to the cecum with reflux into the terminal illeum

77 PEDUNCULATED COLON POLYP ( DESCENDING COLON) stalk on polyp--pedunculated

78 COLON POLYP Polyp on wall, sessile, without stalk is coated and outlined by barium

79 COLON OBSTRUCTION Distension extends to distal descending colon.

80 COLON CANCER Barium enema showing an ”APPLE -CORE” constricting lesion with proximal dilatation of colon

81 COLON SIGMOID VOLVULUS “COFFEE BEAN SIGN” Dilated coffee bean shaped sigmoid colon due to volvulus.

82 SIGMOID VOLVULUS “BEAK SIGN” Barium fills to point of obstruction and twist of sigmoid colon

83 Air in bowel wall is due to Necrotizing Enterocolits. #1- an infectious complication of premature infants. Air has tracked into the Portal Vein and is seen in #2. #1#2 NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS

84 CT - PNEUMATOSIS Air in the bowel wall Small tiny bubbles in the wall bowel loop – Red arrows

85 DIVERTICULOSIS Barium extends from lumen outward into diverticulum.

86 Extensive inflammation, wall thickening and spasm can simulate carcinoma with colonoscopy required to confirm. DIVERTICULITIS

87 Single arrow thickened LB; DBL arrow air in tic

88 DIVERTICULITIS Black arrow thickened bowel wall, white arrow air in tic

89 NORMAL SMA ARTERIOGRAM Catheter is placed in superior mesenteric artery showing normal filling of small and large intestinal branches.

90 ABNORMAL SMA ARTERIOGRAM GI BLEED Subtracted SMA arteriogram shows contrast collecting at site of active bleeding in Rt. lower quadrant.

91 NUCLEAR MEDICINE Technetium-labeled RBC’S Labeled red blood cells are imaged over 1 hour showing extravasation in Rt. colon steadily increasing indicating active bleeding.

92 NORMAL GAS PATTERN AIR UNDER THE DIAPHRAGM Perforation of GI tract leads to pneumoperitoneum collecting subdiaphragmaticly on upright x-ray

93 ERECT AND DECUBITUS ABDOMEN FILMS SHOW FREE AIR UNDER THE DIAPHRAGM. DECUBITUS UPRIGHT LEFT LATERAL DECUBITUS (left side dependent) shows air along liver margin. This is the preferred x- ray if the patient cannot stand.

94 Rigler’s Sign – See both sides of the bowel wall. Triangle Sign – Small triangles of air

95 Rigler’s Sign – Double Wall Sign Cupula – Continuous Diaphragm Sign

96

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98 CT – FREE AIR

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"Özefagus Hastalıkları Prof. Dr. Öge TAŞCILAR. Farinks ile mide arasında Musküler, elastik, kontraktil tüp Uzunluk 25-30 cm. Önce orta hat, sonra sağ," indir ppt

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