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© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.1 Computer Networks and Internets, 5e By Douglas E. Comer Lecture PowerPoints By Lami Kaya, LKaya@ieee.org
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.2 Chapter 14 The IEEE MAC Sub-Layer
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.3 Topics Covered 14.1 Introduction 14.2 A Taxonomy of Mechanisms for Multi-Access 14.3 Static and Dynamic Channel Allocation 14.4 Channelization Protocols 14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 14.6 Random Access Protocols
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.4 14.1 Introduction This chapter –continues the discussion by examining the IEEE's MAC sublayer –explains multi-access protocols –considers both static and dynamic channel allocation Later chapters in this part –discuss specific networking technologies that use the access mechanisms explained here
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.5 14.2 A Taxonomy of Mechanisms for Multi-Access How do multiple, independent computers coordinate access to a shared medium? There are three broad approaches: –they can use a modified form of a multiplexing technique –they can engage in a distributed algorithm for controlled access –or they can use a random access strategy Figure 14.1 illustrates the taxonomy –including specific forms of each approach
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.6 14.2 Çoklu-Erişim Mekanizmalarının Karşılaştırılması Birbirinden bağımsız bilgisayarlar paylaşılan ortama nasıl kordineli bir şekilde erişim sağlayacaktır? Üç tane geniş yaklaşım mevcuttur: –Bunlar multiplexing tekniklerinin modifiye edilmiş formunu kullanır –Dağınık algoritmalar kontollü şekilde erişim ile meşgul oluyorlar –Bunlar rastgele erişim stratejisini kullanabilirler Şekil 14.1 bu karşılaştırmayı şekillendirilir –Her yaklaşım için özel form içeriyor
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.7 Fig. 14.1 Çoklu-Erişim Mekanizmalarının Karşılaştırılması
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.8 14.3 Static and Dynamic Channel Allocation Channelization refers to a mapping between a given communication and a channel in the underlying system –There should be a mapping between entities and a channel is referred to as 1-to-1 and static –Static channel allocation works well for situations where the set of communicating entities is known in advance and does not change In many networks, however, the set of entities using the network varies over time As an example, consider cellular telephones in a city –users move, and they can turn a cell phone on and off at any time –thus, the set of cell phones that are operating in the range of a given cell tower varies constantly –A dynamic channel allocation scheme is needed; a mapping can be established when a new station appears, and the mapping can be removed when the station disappears
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.9 14.3 Static ve Dinamik Kanal tahsisat Kanal tahsisatı verilen iletişimin ve temelde (alt sistem) bulunan sistemin kanallarıyla eşleşmesidir –Varlıklar arasında eşleşme olmalıdır ve kanal 1-e-1 ve statik olarak adlandırılır –Statik kanal tahsisatı iletişim birimlerinin iyi bilinmesi ile ve değişmeden bir yapıda olanları ile iyi çalışır Fakat çoğu ağda, ağın içerindeki birimlerin çoğu zaman içerisinde farklılıklar göstermektedir Mesela, şehirde kullanılan hücresel telefonları ele alalım –Kullanıcılar hareket eder, ve telefonlarını istedikeri zaman açar yada kapatırlar –Böylece, verilen aralıklarda çalışan hücresel telefonlar, hücresel kuleye göre sabit birşekilde değişir –Bunun için dinamik kanal tahsisat şeması gerekir, eşleşme yeni bir istasyon belirdiğinde yapılır, ve istasyon kaybolduğunda eşleşme kaldırılır
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.10 14.4 Channelization Protocols Channelization protocols extend the multiplexing techniques covered in Chapter 11 Figure 14.2 (below) lists the main channelization techniques These schemes have been discussed in Chapter 11 in detail –14.4.1 FDMA –14.4.2 TDMA –14.4.3 CDMA
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.11 14.4 Kanal Açma Protokolleri Kanal Açma Protokolleri Bolüm 11’de anlatılan multiplexing tekniklerinin genişletilmiş halidir Şekil 14.2 (Aşağıdaki) Kanal Açma tekniklerinin asıl listeleri verilmiştir Bu şemalar Bölüm 11’den tartışılmıştır –14.4.1 FDMA –14.4.2 TDMA –14.4.3 CDMA
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.12 14.5 Controlled Access Protocols Controlled access protocols provide a distributed version of statistical multiplexing –Figure 14.3 (below) lists the three principal forms: These will be discussed in the following sub-sections –14.5.1 Polling –14.5.2 Reservation –14.5.3 Token Passing
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.13 14.5 Kontollü Erişim Protokolleri Kontrollü erişim protokolleri istatiksel multiplexing’in dağınık versiyonunu sağlarlar –Şekil 14.3 (aşağıdaki) en önemli üç prensiperini listelemektedir: Bunlarda aşağıdaki alt bölümde inceleneceklerdir –14.5.1 Polling (oylama) –14.5.2 Reservation (rezervasyon) –14.5.3 Token Passing (jeton geçişi)
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.14 14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 14.5.1 Polling Polling uses a centralized controller –which cycles through stations on the network and gives each an opportunity to transmit a packet Algorithm 14.1 gives the steps a controller follows The selection step is significant because it means a controller can choose which station to poll at a given time There are two general polling policies: – Round robin order Round-robin means each station has an equal opportunity to transmit packets – Priority order Priority order means some stations will have more opportunity to send For example, priority order might be used to assign an IP telephone higher priority than a personal computer
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.15 14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 14.5.1 Polling Polling merkezi düzenleyici kullanır –Her döngüde bütün birimlere paket gönderme olanağı sağlar Algoritma 14.1 denetleyici adımların sırasını verir Seçim adımı önemlidir çünkü kontroller’a hangi birimin hangi zaman aralığında paket göndereceğine karar verir İki Genel polling mekanizması mevcuttur: – Round robin sırası Round-robin her birimin paket göndermek için eşit gönderim şansına sahiptir – Priority order Öncelik sırası İstasyonların gönderimdeki önceliğini belirtir Mesela, IP telefonlarının öncelik sırası kişesel bilgisayarınkinden daha yüksektir
14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 14.5.1 Polling (oylama) © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.16
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.17 14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 14.5.2 Reservation (rezervasyon ) Genelde uydu iletişiminde kullanılır İki adımlık bir işlem gerektirir, her işlem paket iletimlerinin detaylı bir şekilde planlamasını gerektirir Tipik olarak, rezervasyon sistemleri merkezi kontrolcüye sahiptir ve buda aşağıdaki algoritmayı içerir
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.18 14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 14.5.2 Reservation In the first step –each potential sender specifies whether they have a packet to send during the next round, and the controller transmits a list of the stations that will be transmitting In the second step –stations use the list to know when they should transmit Variations exist –where a controller uses an alternate channel to gather reservations for the next round while the current round of transmissions proceeds over the main channel
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.19 14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 14.5.2 Reservation (rezervasyon ) İlk adım –Potansiyel göndericiler bir sonraki adımda veri gönderip göndermeyeceklerini hesaplarlar, ve kontolcü gönderecek birimlerin/istasyonların listesini gönderir İkinci adım –Gönderilen listeyi alan birimler ne zaman göndereceklerini bilirler Değişiklikler mevcuttur –Kontrolcü rezervasyonları almak için alternatif kanallar kullanır (her adımda) Hali hazırdaki adımdaki iletimler asıl kanallar üzerinden alınır
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.20 14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 14.5.3 Token Passing It is most often associated with ring topologies Although older LANs used token passing ring technology –popularity has decreased, and few token passing networks remain Imagine a set of computers connected in a ring –and imagine that at any instant, exactly one of the computers has received a special control message called a token When no station has any packets to send –the token circulates among all stations continuously For a ring topology, the order of circulation is defined –if messages are sent clockwise, the next station mentioned in the algorithm refers to the next physical station in a clockwise order When token passing is applied to other topologies (bus) –each station is assigned a position in a logical sequence –and the token is passed according to the assigned sequence
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.21 14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 14.5.3 Token Passing (jeton geçişi) Genelde halka topolojisi ile birleştirilmiştir Eski LAN’larda token passing (jeton geçişi) halka teknolojisinde kullanılıyor –Popülerliği düşmüştür, ve az token passing ağları kalmıştır Bazı bilgisayarların halkaya bağlandığını hayal edin –Ve tam olarak bir bilgisayar özel kontrol mesajı olan jeton (token)’a sahiptir Herhangi bir birimin gönderecek verisi olmadığı zaman –Jeton bütün birimleri sürekli dolaşır Halka topolojisi için, dolaşma sırası tanımlanmıştır –Eğer mesajlar saat yönüne doğru gönderilmişse, algoritmada bir sonraki birim olarak adlandırılan diğer fiziksel birim, saat yönünü temsil eder Jeten geçişi diğer topolojilere uygulandığı zaman (bus) –Her birim için mantıksa sıra (logical sequence) kararlaştırılır –Ve jeton kararlaştırılan sıraya göre yerdeğiştirir
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.22 14.5 Controlled Access Protocols 14.5.3 Token Passing (jeton geçişi) Kontollü ulaşımda her bilgisayar aşağıdaki algoritmayı kullanır
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.23 14.6 Random Access Protocols Some LANs do not employ a controlled access mechanism –Instead, a set of computers attached to a shared medium attempt to access the medium without coordination The term random is used because access only occurs when a given station has a packet to send –and randomization is employed to prevent all computers on a LAN from attempting to use the medium at the same time –the descriptions of specific methods below will clarify the use of randomization Figure 14.4 lists the three random access methods that are discussed –14.6.1 ALOHA –14.6.2 CSMA/CD –14.6.3 CSMA/CA
14.6 Random Access Protocols © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.24
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.25 14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.1 ALOHA An early network in Hawaii, known as ALOHAnet, pioneered the concept of random access –the network is no longer used, but the ideas have been extended The network consisted of a single powerful transmitter in a central geographic location –It is surrounded by a set of stations/computer –Stations had a transmitter capable of reaching the central transmitter but not powerful enough to reach all the other stations ALOHAnet used two (2) carrier frequencies for broadcasting: –one for outbound by the central transmitter to all stations –and another for inbound by stations to the central transmitter Figure 14.5 illustration of outbound and inbound frequencies in ALOHAnet
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.26 14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.1 ALOHA
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.27 14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.1 ALOHA The ALOHA protocol is straightforward: –when a station has a packet to send it transmits the packet on the inbound frequency –the central transmitter repeats the transmission on the outbound frequency (which all stations can receive) To insure that transmission is successful –a sending station listens to the outbound channel if a copy of its packet arrives, the sending station moves to the next packet if no copy arrives, the sending station waits a short time and tries again Why might a packet fail to arrive? Interference –if two stations simultaneously transmit the signals will interfere and the two transmissions will be garbled called a collision, and say that the two transmitted packets collide The protocol handles a collision –by requiring a sender to retransmit each lost packet
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.28 14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.2 CSMA/CD Researchers at Xerox PARC created a random access protocol (1973) –In 1978, a standard (also called the DIX standard) was created by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, and Xerox –It is widely known as Ethernet It uses cable as a shared medium –instead of broadcasting radio frequency transmissions through the atmosphere Ethernet uses three (3) mechanisms to handle collisions: –Carrier sense –Collision detection –Binary exponential backoff
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.29 14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.2 CSMA/CD Ethernet requires each station to monitor the cable to detect whether another transmission is already in progress –this process is known as carrier sense –it prevents the most obvious collision problems –and substantially improves network utilization A collision can occur if two stations wait for a transmission to stop, find the cable idle, and both start transmitting –A small part of the problem is that even at the speed of light, some time is required for a signal to travel down the cable –Thus, a station at one end of the cable cannot know instantly when a station at the other end begins to transmit
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.30 14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.2 CSMA/CD To handle collisions –each station monitors the cable during transmission If the signal on the cable differs from the signal that the station is sending –it means that a collision has occurred –the technique is known as collision detection –when a collision is detected, the sending station aborts transmission Many details complicate Ethernet transmission –For example, following a collision, transmission does not abort until enough bits have been sent to guarantee that the collided signals reach all stations –Furthermore, following a transmission, stations must wait for an interpacket gap (9.6 sec for a 10 Mbps Ethernet) to insure that all stations sense an idle network and have a chance to transmit
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.31 14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.2 CSMA/CD Binary Exponential Backoff –After a collision occurs a computer must wait for the cable to become idle again before transmitting a frame –Randomization is used to avoid having multiple stations transmit simultaneously as soon as the cable is idle –The standard specifies a maximum delay, d, and requires each station to choose a random delay less than d after a collision occurs When two stations each choose a random value –the station that chooses the smallest delay will proceed to send a packet and the network will return to normal operation In the case where two or more computers happen to choose nearly the same amount of delay –they will both begin to transmit at nearly the same time –producing a second collision
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.32 14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.2 CSMA/CD To avoid a sequence of collisions –Ethernet requires each computer to double the range from which a delay is chosen after each collision a computer chooses a random delay between 0 - d after one collision a random delay between 0 - 2d after a second collision a random delay between 0 - 4d after a third, and so on –After a few collisions, the range from which a random value is chosen becomes large Thus, some computer will choose a random delay shorter than the others, and will transmit without a collision Doubling the range of the random delay after each collision is known as binary exponential backoff
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.33 14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.2 CSMA/CD By using exponential backoff –an Ethernet can recover quickly after a collision –because each computer agrees to wait longer times between attempts when the cable becomes busy Even in the unlikely event that two or more computers choose delays that are approximately equal –exponential backoff guarantees that contention for the cable will be reduced after a few collisions The combination of techniques described above is known by the name Carrier Sense Multi-Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Algorithm 14.4 summarizes CSMA/CD
© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.34 14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.3 CSMA/CD
14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.3 CSMA/CA © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.35 CSMA/CD does not work as well in wireless LANs –because a transmitter used in a wireless LAN has a limited range A receiver that is more δ than away from the transmitter –will not receive a signal, and will not be able to detect a carrier Consider three computers with wireless LAN hardware positioned as Figure 14.6 (below) illustrates
14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.3 CSMA/CA © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.36 In Figure 14.6, computer1 can communicate with computer2, but cannot receive the signal from computer3 –Thus, if computer3 is transmitting a packet to computer2, computer1's carrier sense mechanism will not detect the transmission –Similarly, if computer1 and computer3 simultaneously transmit, only computer2 will detect a collision The problem is sometimes called the hidden station problem –because some stations are not visible to others Wireless LANs use a modified access protocol –known as CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) The CSMA/CA triggers a brief transmission from the intended receiver before transmitting a packet
14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.3 CSMA/CA © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.37 The idea is that if both the sender and receiver transmit a message –all computers within range of either will know a packet transmission is beginning Figure 14.7 (below) illustrates the sequence
14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.3 CSMA/CA © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.38 In Figure 14.7 –computer3 sends a short message to announce that it is ready to transmit a packet to computer2 –and computer2 responds by sending a short message announcing that it is ready to receive the packet –all computers in range of computer3 receive the initial announcement –and all computers in the range of computer2 receive the response –as a result, even though it cannot receive the signal or sense a carrier, computer1 knows that a packet transmission is taking place
14.6 Random Access Protocols 14.6.3 CSMA/CA © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.39 Collisions of control messages can occur when using CSMA/CA, but they can be handled easily For example, if computer1 and computer3 each attempt to transmit a packet to computer2 at exactly the same time –their control messages will collide –When a collision occurs, the sending stations apply random backoff before resending the control messages. Because control messages are much shorter than a packet, the probability of a second collision is low
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