... konulu sunumlar: "Öğr. Gör. Elşen BAĞIRZADE Azerbaycan Devlet İktisat Üniversitesi"— Sunum transkripti:
1Öğr. Gör. Elşen BAĞIRZADE Azerbaycan Devlet İktisat Üniversitesi IX. BÖLÜM DERS NOTLARI: DÜNYA TİCARETİNİN SERBESTLEŞTİRİLMESİ VE KÜRESEL TİCARETÖğr. Gör. Elşen BAĞIRZADEAzerbaycan Devlet İktisat ÜniversitesiTürk Dünyası İşletme FakültesiBaküSunumlarda Paul R. Krugman ve Maurice Obstfeld tarafından yazılmış “International Economics: Theory and Policy” ve Halil Seyidoğlu tarafından yazılmış “Uluslararası İktisat: Teori, Politika ve Uygulama” isimli ders kitabları temel alınmıştır.Ders: Uluslararası İktisat ve Dış Ticaret Politikası
13DTÖ İkametgah: Cenevre, İsviçre Kuruluş: 1 Yanvar 1995 Oluşmuştur: Urugvay raundu görüşmeleri ( ) Üyelik: 150 ülkeBütçe: 175m İsviçre frankı, 2006Sekreterlik: ~630Genel Direktör: Paskal LamiFonksyonları:• DTÖ ticaret anlaşmalarını yönetmek• Ticaret müzakereleri üzre forum• Ticaret müzakerelerini yönetmek• Ulusal ticaret politikalarını gözden geçirmek• Teknik destek ve GOÜ’ler için eğitim• Diğer uluslararası örgütlerle işbirliği
14DTÖ: karar süreci500 sayfalık kurallar/23,000 sayfalık yorumlarThe WTO is a trading system based on rulesThe results of the Uruguay Round consist of:500 pages of agreements (the “rules”)23,000 pages of commitments i.e. specific commitments that over 120 individual member countries have made on import duties on thousands of products, agricultural subsidies, market access for foreign services, etc.Uluslararası ticaret kuralları üyeler tarafından müzakere yoluyla anlaşmaya bağlanır.
17GATT (WTO) olmadığında dünya ticareti Dünya ticaretine korumacılığın etkisi, 1929–1933OcakŞubatMartNisanMayısHaziranTemmuzAğustosEylülEkimkasımAralık19291930193119321933$3.0 mlrd$0.9 mlrdWithout the WTOThe effect of protectionism on world trade, 1929–33This is what happened in an earlier era, when there was no multilateral trading system and countries did not have faith in each other. They did not believe that other countries would play by the rules (and they could not resist narrow protectionist interests within their domestic systems).The chart follows the monthly changes in the value of world trade over a period of four years and three months, during the Great Depression.We start in January 1929, when world trade stood at about $3bn.This is what happened next ……By March 1933, two-thirds of world trade had been wiped out. The value was less than one billion dollars per month. The cause was competition among major trading countries to raise barriers against each other. The financial crisis had led to devaluations that threatened importing countries with surges in cheaper imports. The protectionist lobbying prevailed and the trade barriers went up everywhere.Source: Charles P Kindleberger, The World in Depression 1929–1939, Allen Lane/Penguin, page 172, citing League of Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, February 1934, page 51. (Total imports of 75 countries, monthly values in terms of old US gold dollars.)Ticaret göstergeleri: her ay
35DTÖ( WTO) ile dünya ticareti Dünya ticaret hacmi 1948–2003 ABŞ $ trln, cari fiyatlarla123456781948195719661975198419932002GATT ’48DTÖ ’95DAHA fazla ticaret? Tabi ki, ancak …… İSTİKRARA DİKKAT >Eğer % 67 silinmiştirsəWith the WTO (and GATT) The experience was not repeatedThe multilateral trading system came into being with the birth of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in For almost 50 years, GATT was both a treaty and an international organization. The treaty still exists as the main multilateral agreement on trade in goods. But in 1995 GATT, the institution, was replaced by the WTO. During that period trade rose rapidly and for a lot of the time exponentially, with only a few dips for oil crises and the like.So yes the graph most visibly shows the growth in trade. Approaching $80 trillion per year by the early 2000s.But that’s not my reason for showing the graph.In 1997 there was another financial crises. Currencies in east and southeast Asia were devalued. These lowered the price of those countries’ exports. Fearing a surge in cheap imports, lobbies campaigned to raise trade barriers in the major markets of North America and Europe. But the governments resisted. They were bound by their obligations in the WTO, and because they knew others were similarly bound, they had confidence that the system would remain stable.So it did remain stable, and the effect of the financial crisis was a minor blip in world trade. Trade soon recovered. History did not repeat itself. If anything like two-thirds of world trade had been wiped out, the picture would look very different, and the damaging effect would have been immense. It would probably have been worst on developing countries.The unsung benefit is the stability the GATT and WTO have injected into the trading system. It doesn’t hit headlines, and is rarely mentioned at all. But its benefit is significant.Source: WTO data1997
36Nerelerdese görüşmeler yapılır ve sonuçlar elde edilir. DTÖİlk adım görüşmedir.Nerelerdese görüşmeler yapılır ve sonuçlar elde edilir.Öyle bir yerdir ki, hükümetler kendi ticaret sorunlarını görüşmek için müracat etmektedirler.A place to negotiate, and to apply the results of negotiationsThe first step is to talk.Essentially, the WTO is a place where member governments go, to try to sort out the trade problems they face with each other.At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations.But the WTO is not just about liberalizing trade, and in some circumstances its rules support maintaining trade barriers — for example to protect consumers or prevent the spread of disease.DTÖ yalnız ticareti liberalleştirmemektedir. Bazen kuralar ticari baryerleri desteklemektedir– Örneğin. Tüketicileri himaye etme veya hastalığa önleme.Skip >>>