... konulu sunumlar: "ENM208 ÜRETİM NEDİR ANADOLU U N I V E R S I T Y Industrial Eng. Dep. 2006 Saleh AMAITIK."— Sunum transkripti:
ENM208 ÜRETİM NEDİR ANADOLU U N I V E R S I T Y Industrial Eng. Dep. 2006 Saleh AMAITIK
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Üretimin Tanımı Latince kelimeler olan manu factus Ell imal etme manu = El factus = Yapmak,imal etmek
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Üretim, ürünleri ham malzemeden başlayarak pekçok prosesden,işlemden ve makinelerden geçiren, her aşamasının iyi planlandığı bir aktiviteler zinciridir. Üretimin tanımı Üretimin Tanımı
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Üretimİmalat İmalat Mühendisliği, tüm dünyada geniş kullanım alanına sahip ve endüstriyel aktiviteler alanını içeren bir tanımdır. Üretim Mühendisliği ise Amerika dışındaki tüm ülkelerde kullanılan İmalat Mühendisliğine eşdeğer bir tanımdır. Derslerimizde Üretim Mühendisliği olarak kullanılacaktır. Üretimin Tanımı
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Üretim Sistemleri Üretim Sistemi, istenilen ürünleri elde etmek için kullanılan üretim proseslerinin tamamına ve organizasyonuna verilen isimdir. Üretim Sistemi, üretim proseslerini tasarlamak veya düzenlemektir. Üretim Sisteminin kontrolu demek, tüm proseslerin veya teçhizatın kontrol altında bulunması demektir. Tüm üretim sistemi, bir program veya plana göre, üretimin kontrolü, stok seviyesi ve ürünün kalite seviyesi gibi kavramları kontrol altında tutmak zorundadır.
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Üretim sistemi, Ürettiği ürünlerin girdilerini dış müşterilerinin isteklerinden alır. Üretim Sistemleri
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Bir üretim sistemi aşağıdaki ürün tiplerini üretebilir: Tekli ürünler Ayrık-tek parça halindeki ürünler (çivi,vida,dişliler,motor bloğu vb.) Sürekli ürünler Tek parça halinden kesilerk ve böylece tekli ürün halina getirilenler(Kablo teli,sac veya plastik plaklar,borular,profiller vbg.) Üretim Sistemleri
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Production Systems Bir üretim sistemi veya teşebbüs, tüm işletmeyi ve üretim sistemini kapsayan bir sorumluluk alanına sahip olacaktır. Üretim sistemi, Üretim birimine ek olarak tesisin, işletmenin tüm diğer fonksiyonları ile birlikte, iletişim,tasarım,analiz ve kontrolunden sorumlu olacaktır. Bu alt sistemler, üretilen tüm ürünler için çeşitli anlamlar ifade edeceklerdir.
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Production Systems Manufacturing System (where value is added)
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Production Systems Production Types Low-quantity production (1 ~ 100 units/yr) Job shop, prototyping. Medium-quantity production (100 ~ 10,000 units/yr) Batch production & cellular manufacturing. High-quantity production (> 10,000 units/yr) Mass production.
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Machine A specific piece of equipment designed to accomplish specific processes, often called a Machine Tool Examples: Milling machine, punch press, …. Machine tools linked together to make a manufacturing system cell
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Job (Station) A collection of operations done on machines or a collection of tasks performed by one worker at one location on the assembly line. Examples: Machining, inspection, final assembly, ……
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Operation (Process) A specific action or treatment, often done on a machine, the collection of which makes up the job of a worker. Examples: Drilling, Forming, Welding, assembly, ……
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Tool Refers to the implements used to hold, cut, shape, or deform the work materials. Examples: Cutting tools in machining. Jigs and fixtures in work holding. Punches and dies in metal forming.
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Design and Manufacturing process
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Concurrent Engineering Concurrent engineering is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacture and support.
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Design for Manufacturing (DFM) It is a comprehensive approach to production of products, ant it integrates the design process with materials, manufacturing methods, process planning, assembly, and quality assurance. Implements design for manufacture requires that designers have a fundamental understanding of the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of materials, manufacturing processes and related operations, machinery and equipment.
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Selecting materials for manufacturing Variety of materials is now available, each having its own properties, applications, advantages, and limitations.
Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005 Selecting materials for manufacturing When selecting materials for products, we consider Mechanical properties of materials (Strength, toughness, ductility, hardness, elasticity, fatigues, creep, ……( Physical properties of materials (density, specific heat, thermal expansion and conductivity, melting point, and electrical and magnetic properties, ……) Chemical properties of materials (corrosion, toxicity, flammability, ……)
Manufacturing Processes Selecting materials for manufacturing The material properties specified for a product should be appropriate to the conditions under which the product is expected to function. Spring 2005 The manufacturing properties of materials determine whether they can be cast, formed, machined, welded, and heated-treated with relative ease.
Manufacturing Processes Selection of manufacturing processes Spring 2005 Many processes are used to produce parts and shapes and there is usually more than one method of manufacturing a part from a given material Classification of manufacturing processes Machining (turning, drilling, milling, grinding, ……. Forming and shaping (rolling, forging, sheet forming,….. Casting (expendable mold, permanent mold, ……) Joining (welding, brazing, soldering, ….) Finishing (honing, polishing, coating, heat treatment, …
Manufacturing Processes Characterizing a manufacturing process Spring 2005
Manufacturing Processes Factors affecting the selection of manufacturing processes Spring 2005 There are many factors which affect the selection of a suitable manufacturing process for a part. These factors are: Geometry Quality Quantity Material Machine or equipment avalibility Cost
Manufacturing Processes Factors affecting the selection of manufacturing processes Spring 2005 Geometry Cylindrical, conical, and screw threads are mostly easily produced on a Lathe. Plane surface, block shapes and slots are generally produced by shaping, planning or milling. More complex parts may need to be cast, forged or shaped before machining. The shape of a part will decide the process which must be used to produce that part.
Manufacturing Processes Factors affecting the selection of manufacturing processes Spring 2005 Quality Dimensional accuracy (tolerances). Geometrical accuracy. Surface finish. An appropriate manufacturing process should provide suitable dimensional accuracy, geometrical accuracy, and surface finish.
Manufacturing Processes Factors affecting the selection of manufacturing processes Spring 2005 Quantity The quantity (batch size) determines the economics of manufacturing process selection. The cost falls as the batch size increases and more productive techniques can be employed.
Manufacturing Processes Factors affecting the selection of manufacturing processes Spring 2005 Material The material from which the part is going to be made The material specified by the designer influences the method of manufacturing.
Manufacturing Processes Factors affecting the selection of manufacturing processes Spring 2005 Machine or equipment availability Availability of machines and equipment and of operating experience with the manufacturing facility Cost Operational and manufacturing cost.
Manufacturing Processes Consequences of improper selection of materials and processes Spring 2005 Numerous examples of product failure can be traced to Improper selection of material. A part is generally considered to have failed when It stops functioning (e.g. broken shaft, gear, ….) Improper selection of manufacturing processes. Improper control of process variables. It does not functioning properly or perform within required specification limits (e.g. worn bearing, …) It becomes unreliable or unsafe for further use (e.g. crack in a shaft,..)
Manufacturing Processes Net-shape Manufacturing Spring 2005 Since not all manufacturing operations produce finished parts, additional operations may be necessary. Net-shape or near-net-shape manufacturing. The part is made, in the first operation, as close to the final desired dimensions, tolerances, surface finish, and specifications as possible.
Manufacturing Processes Manufacturing Automation Spring 2005 The major goals of automation in manufacturing facilities are to integrate various operations so as to improve productivity, to increase product quality, to minimize cycle times, and to reduce labor costs Computers are now used in a very broad range of applications including: Control and optimization of manufacturing processes. Material handling Automated assembly Automated inspection and testing of products
Üretim Prosesleri Bilgisayarla Bütünleşik İmalat - CIM
Manufacturing Processes Üretimde Bilgisayar Uygulamaları Spring 2005 Üretimde bilgisayar kullanım alanları aşağıdaki şekilde özetlenebilir. Bilgisayar Destekli Üretim - BDÜ (CNC) Bilgisayar Destekli Üretim Planlama - BDÜP (CAPP) Otomasyon ve Robotik Montaj Sistemleri. Esnek Üretim Sistemleri - EÜS (FMS) Otomatik Malzeme İletimi. Yapay Zeka.