1Afrika Bal Arıları / Katil Arılar The honey bee population known as Africanized (or “Killer”) bee (AHB) has continued to spread since arriving in the U.S. in What are the real facts – do we need to be overly concerned about this bee? What are the real “facts” and “issues” with AHB’s?Dr. Ali KORKMAZZiraat Yüksek MühendisiSamsun Gıda Tarım ve Hayvancılık İl Müdürlüğü
2Apis mellifera adansonii Afrika Arısı / Katil Arılar
3Orijini Afrika kıtasıdır Brezilyada doğadaki oğullarAğaç üzerindeki kolonide, geceleyinve körük yardımıyla bal hasadı…The population of we call Africanized honey bees originated from bees brought to South America from Pretoria area of So Africa and Tanzania. The bees are kept in primitive hives and largely destruct harvested of their honey, brood and wax by building a large fire and driving the bees away at night (top right). They escaped afte being brought to Brazil via swarming and have retained their own identity while changing other honey bee stock to their genetic composition. One behavior they have retained is their propensity to swarm – but swarms are small and can be defensive and not valued except by rural campesinos who can capture them and start a new colony. The bee has changed American beekeeping and beekeepers have had to learn to adjust to their behavior, including defensiveness or have simply given up beekeeping (wearing the necessary protective equipment in the hot, humid tropics and the level of management skill needed to secure a yield is a detriment.Amerikan arıcılığındaki değişim…Panama’da Afrika Bal arılarının büyük boy körükle kontrolü..
4Afrika Bal Arısının Yayılışı From Winston (1987)Map from Africanized Honey Bee in the Americas (by Caron) with updates on Pacific coast population (which might eventually spread southward into Chile) and Caribbean Islands (Hispanola, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago). Accidental introductions of swarms from shipping (FL, AL especially), train/truck movement (VA, IL) and beekeeper movement (ME, OH) have been intercepted and the colonies eliminated or moved back to originating states. Eastern seaports and especially FL and Gulf Coast shipping sites are continually monitored to avoid accidental introduction. Populations were considered established in parts of central Florida, Mobile Bay area of Alabama and western border of LA and AK in See website for current distribution map.
5ABD’de Afrika Bal Arıları XXXInitially the Africanized bee entered the U.S. in South Texas (1990). The population spread (or additionally arrived from Mexico) westward. It has spread northward in each of the southwestern states and now occurs also in Oklahoma. See websites for information on initial spread and current distribution: bees/ucr.edu/ gears/tucson.ars.ag.gov/ahb/
6Afrika Arılarına Niçin Katil Arılar Denir? Katil arılar yüksek düzeyde saldırgan olupkolonilerinin bulunduğu bölgede arı sokmavakalarında artış görülmektedir.The Africanized bee – often referred to as Killer bee by the press, is a population of bees that are largely African bee Apis mellifera scutellata, genetically. As such it is a bee well adapted for open savannnah of eastern Africa. Compared to European bees they swarm a lot, run on the combs when the colony is opened, rear queens and develop as workers slightly faster and have a host of other biological differences from European race bees. They also have a few differences in DNA, are slightly smaller in body size and are generally more defensive with their nest defense perimeter outside the colony further afield than European bees.
7Afrika Bal Arıları Fazla yavru, az bal. AHBThe Africanized bee – often referred to as Killer bee by the press, is a population of bees that are largely African bee Apis mellifera scutellata, genetically. As such it is a bee well adapted for open savannnah of eastern Africa. Compared to European bees they swarm a lot, run on the combs when the colony is opened, rear queens and develop as workers slightly faster and have a host of other biological differences from European race bees. They also have a few differences in DNA, are slightly smaller in body size and are generally more defensive with their nest defense perimeter outside the colony further afield than European bees.Avrupa arılarından daha küçük yuva yapar…İşçi arılar peteğin dış kısmında toplanırAfrika arıları Avrupa arılarına göre; daha fazla oğul verir, çok fazla saldırgandırlar. İşçi arılar 19 günde ve ana arılar 15,5 günde yetiştirilirler. Bedenleri daha küçüktür, dans yetenekleri fazla gelişmemiştir.
9En Önemli Özellik : Saldırgandırlar! AHB colonies are not always defensive – but they can be very explosive and can create a “stinging incident” very suddenly. On left a colony opened late in the day “exploded” with bees rushing out as the cover was removed and these leather gloves (right) were attacked repeatedly (shown are excised stings embedded in the gloves). As with all bees, the response to disturbances (such as opening their colony) may be slight or it may be exaggerated – with AHB’s it can be very excessive as shown in these two views (with the gloves, a single sting left in the leather material means release of chemical alarm odor so additional bees react by stinging all in defense of their colony.)
11Afrika bal arıları papaya ve kavun polinasyonunda kullanılırlar. Like other bees, the Africanized honey bee is an excellent pollinator – both native flora and in planned pollination of agricultural commodities such as melons in Costa Rica and papaya in Puerto Rico. They are more difficult than European race bees to manage and move for pollination due to defensiveness and tendency to swarm/abscond.Fakat yüksek saldırganlık düzeyi ve fazla oğul vermeleri nedeniyle polinasyonda planlı olarak kullanılmaları oldukça zordur.
12Avrupa bal arısı ile kıyaslandırıldığında tropik iklimlerde iyi bir bal üreticisidirler. The honey producing ability of AHB is somewhat controversial. They tend to be gleaners and tend not to wait in the hive for stimulation by dancing. In situations of large monocultures they apparently are not as productive as European bees but in the natural conditions of tropical/semitropical conditions they are better producers than European cousins. Generally as in pollination, honey production is more difficult with AHB colonies due to defensiveness and their tendency to reproduce when forage conditions are favorable vs store large surpluses of honey. There is variation in the Africanized bee population and beekeepers in Brazil and elsewhere have selected Africanized bees for improved honey production and less swarming/absconding.
13Guatemala pazarında bal satışı Balı üçüncü dünya ülkelerinde besinden ziyade değerli bir ilaç olarak kullanılır.An important difference in the American tropics and 3rd world countries in general is that the population view honey as a medicine and generally cannot afford nor have experience consuming honey as a sweetner as for example in tea, on toast, as a breakfast cereal or baked goods sweetner/freshness preserver. Although you might buy a recycled whiskey bottle full of honey in this Guatamalan market, most of the customers will buy a small dollup of the honey with wax for a medicinal remedy/treatment.Guatemala pazarında bal satışı