6İnfertilite-Septum sıklık Retrospektif375 primer infertil kadında histeroskopi bulguları%Normal uterin kaviteAnormal uterin kaviteSubseptat uterus 6.9İntrauterin Adezyon 3.2Nawroth F, 2003STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of routine minihysteroscopy in the diagnosis of primary infertility. DESIGN: Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). SETTING: Endoscopic center at a university hospital. PATIENTS: Three hundred seventy-nine patients with primary infertility. INTERVENTION: Diagnostic minihysteroscopy without anesthesia or sedation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Hysteroscopy was normal in 337 patients (89.9%). In 38 patients (10.1%) an intrauterine pathology was found: 26 intrauterine adhesions, 12 cases of uterus subseptus. The procedure could not be completed in four women. CONCLUSION: Minihysteroscopy should become a routine diagnostic procedure in women with primary infertility, even those with no suspected intrauterine pathology or other risk factors
7Septum- IVF Feghali J 2003 Hinckley MD 2004 de Silva AC 2005 Doldi N RetrospektifProspektifHasta sayısı1451000574300Anormal kavite %453610.140Mullerian anom. %-0.83Polip %10.3 (+myom)322.626Sineşi %21.6< 5Endometrit %17.2Myom %Diğer %188.8.131.52 hiperplazi
8Septum-Tekrarlayan implantasyon başarısızlığı La Sala BG1998Oliveira FG2003Demirol A2004ProspektifProspektif randomizeHasta sayısı10055421Anormal kavite %184626.7Polip %215.7İntrauterin adezyon %6118.5Myom %4-SeptumEndometrit1.213*Diğer12.3***Histolojik olarak kanıtlanmış endometrit **servikal adezyon
14Konjenital uterin anomaliler (Sınıflama) Sınıf I (Hipoplazi / agenezi)Sınıf II (Unikornu uterus)Sınıf III (Uterus didelfis)Sınıf IV (Bikornu uterus)Sınıf V (Septat uterus)Sınıf VI (Arkuat uterus)Sınıf VII (DES-ile ilgili)The American Fertility Society. Classifications of adnexal adhesions,distal tubal occlusion, tubal occlusion secondary to tuballigation, tubal pregnancies, mullerian anomalies and intrauterineadhesions. Fertil Steril. 1988;49:944–955.ASRM, 1988
15Tanı HSG USG MRI H/S ve L/S TA, TV, Doppler SİS (Sonohisterografi) 2D-3DMRIH/S ve L/S
16Figure 1 Transvaginal scan with color Doppler facilities demonstrates a septate uterus. Note the two separate endometrial echoes divided by athick septum.Figure 2 Septate uterus at sonohysterography. Note the two separateendometrial echoes divided by a thick septum.Figure 11 Three-dimensional scan of a septate uterus characterized bya normal outer uterine contour and thick septum extending into theuterine cavity.
17Septum-sıklık Fertil ~%1 İnfertil ~%1-3.4 Mükerrer abortus ~%3.3-15.8 Homer et al. Fertil Steril 2000; 73: 1-14
20Uterus dış konturu genelde konveks ya da düz Bazen fundal konkavite (< 1cm)Endometrial ekonun hipoekoik bir alan ile ikiye bölünmesi )fundusİnce, fibroz dokuUSG’de ekojenik endometral kaviteler fundal kesimde myometriumun ekojenitesi ile ayrılmıştır
21Normal Arkuat Subseptus 3D-USG ve SEPTUMNormal Arkuat SubseptusKomplet
27Septum surgery-Clinical pearls timing of surgeryuse of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or agents such as danazol before surgeryscissors, resectoscopic incision, laser metroplasty, and bipolar needle electrodes.LaparoscopeSeptum removal or incisionEnd pointComplet servical septumfluid input and outputIntravenous antibioticsballoon catheters or occasionally inert intrauterine devices (IUDs)Estrogenreevaluated with HSG or hysteroscopyMultiple methodologies exist for the actual performance ofthe surgery, including operative hysteroscopywith scissors, resectoscopicincision, laser metroplasty, and bipolar needle electrodes.Not one of these techniques has been demonstrated tobe superior to another. There were early discussions that with theuse of electrosurgery or laser, there might be lateral thermal damage,which might decrease healing or increase the likelihood ofsubsequent adhesion formation. Fortunately, the uterus and theendometrium in particular appear to have a high inherent abilityto heal, making these concerns largely unfounded. Advantagesof the use of scissors (or laser) include the ability to use isotonicsolutions such as normal saline or lactated Ringer’s, which areelectrolyte containing, because electrosurgery is not being used.In addition, scissors may often be introduced through a relativelysmall operative hysteroscope versus the larger caliber of theresectoscope. Alternatively, the 180◦ loop may be used with theresectoscope, and given the larger diameter, it may be easier tohave greatermovement of fluidswithin the cavity, thus improvingvisualization.Once the work-up has been completed and a decision made toproceed with surgery, consideration as to the timing of surgeryshould occur. Generally, we prefer to perform surgery in the follicularphase as early as possible after the patient has finishedmenses.At this point, there is minimal endometrial tissue presentto obscure visualization during hysteroscopy as well as limitedvascularity.An alternative to performance of the surgery during thefollicular phase that has been proposed by some is the use ofgonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or agents suchas danazol before surgerybe superior to anotherAlthough data suggest it is possible to perform metroplastywithout a laparoscopy in patients in whom the diagnosis of auterine septum is assured, many surgeons still prefer to have alaparoscope in place to guide the procedure
28Preoperative preparation of the endometrium ProgestinsDanazolGnRH analogsOCWide septaComplete septa
29Teknik Mekanik (makas) Elektrocerrahi: Resektoskop (Monopolar), Versapoint (bipolar)Fiberoptik laser:Argon-krypton(KTP532), Nd:YAG, ArgonHisteroskopik septum rezeksiyonu ilk kez Edstrom tarafından 1974 uygulanmıştır.Various techniques and instruments are used either to incise or remove the septum, including semirigid or rigid scissors (7 French) or unipolar wire loop (8 mm) urologic resectoscope (21 to 26 French sheath); Versapoint® bipolar electrode (1.6 mm; 5 mm sheath); or Potassium-titan-phosphate (KTP/532), neodynamic:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), or argon lasersHangi Teknik:Makas,Elektocerrahi, Laser?Septum insizyonunda yapılış şeklinden bağımsız iki teknik vardır. :1. “shortening” teknik (ince septalarda),2. “thinning” teknik (geniş septalarda),Makas :Teorik olarak yapışıklık az olur.Rezektoskop:İğne,point,loop elektrod kullanılr.İşlemi hızlandırır ,basitleştirir,hemostaz sağlar
30Nerede durmalı ?Histeroskop kavitede serbestçe gezdirilebilince ve her iki tubal ostium aynı anda görünür hale gelince işleme son verilir.Laparoskopi de yapılıyorsa fundusta ışığın görülmesi yeterli rezeksiyonu ifade eder.Myometrium kanamaya başlayınca işleme son verilir.Kalan septum 1 cm den küçükse fertiliteyi etkilemez.Fundusun aşırı inceltilmesi gebelikte rüptür olasılığını arttırır.
31Teknik:No simultaneous hemostasis. Saline used, rigid, flexible ve semirigid. Semirigid: targetted division of tissue, selectively directed to the arear to be dissected can be retrieved back for a better panaromic view.
35Versapoint (Gynecare-Ethicon) Teknik:Resectoscope: ufak lezyonlarda bile büyük çaplı bir enstrüman. Bu nedenle CX dilatasyonu gerekiyor. Bunun için genel anestezi.5 mm sheath, eskiden diagnostik scopelar için olan sheath kadar. Ama bu yeni 5 mm sheathde working channel ve continous flow da var.Diğer avantaj bipolar enerji (unipolar değil) Saline kullanıldığı için hiponatremi, hiponatremik ensefalopati, hiperkapni, geçici kan oxygen desatürasyonu, koagülopati ve postop hiperammonemia deriving from oxidative deamination of the aminoacid glycine gibi komp. Oranı azalıyor, riski ortadan kalkıyor. Bunlar hipotonik solüsyonların indüklediği komplikasyonlar. Laser can be used with saline through 5 Fr op. Port but expensive.Servikal dilatsyona gerek olmadığı için genel anesteziye gerek yok. Pain during H/S occurs with CX os dilatation and uterine cavity distension. Ayrıca yalnızca aktif elektrodla kontakt halindeki doku desike veya vaporize oluyor yani lateral termal yaralanma minimal.Twizzle elektrod can be bent by derece to obtain a kind of hook elektrod.The sensitive innervation in the uterus starts from the myometrium out, while the endometrium and any fibrotic tissue are not sensitive .Paraservikal anestezi with 10 ml of 1% mepivacaine HCl solution injected with a 22 G spinal needle on four sites (3, 5, 7, 9 o clock positions at the junction of the Cx and vagina. Sedasyon: IV 0.5 mg atropine ve 0.25 mg fentanyl followed by an IV slow injection of 2.0 mg of midazolam.Minimal cx dilatation, normal saline distention5 Fr bipolar elektrod5 mm sheath – continuos flow ve 5 Fr working channelSaline solüsyonu2.9 mm scope50 W cutting modeLokal anestezi - sedasyonVersapoint (Gynecare-Ethicon)
36Resectoscope or Versapoint for hysteroscopic metroplasty Objective: To assess the feasibility, safety, and reproductive outcome of hysteroscopicmetroplasty using the Versapoint device compared with the resectoscope using the Collinsloop. Methods: Sixty-three women diagnosed with partial septate uterus were included in thestudy. Forty-two women underwent hysteroscopic metroplasty using Versapoint and 21 womenhad the procedure using the resectoscope. Operating time, complications, pregnancy rate, andmode of delivery were recorded. Data were analyzed with the Mann–Whitney test. Results:Operating time was 20.5 min for the resectoscope group and 15.4 min for the Versapoint group(Pb0.05). Pregnancy rate, delivery rate, and spontaneous abortions were similar in both groups.Conclusion: Operative hysteroscopy with Versapoint does not require cervical dilation, thusavoiding cervical incompetence, cervical lacerations, and uterine perforation. The Versapointtechnique is a safe and effective alternative to the resectoscope. It could be used predominantlyin nulligravida women, especially in those with cervical canal stenosis.It could be used predominantlyin nulligravida women, especially in those with cervical canal stenosisPietro Litta, 2008
37Complete Septate Uterus: Should the Cervical Septum Be Removed? Among a total of 517 reported cases of septate uterus, 74 (14%) were found to be a complete septate uterus.The incidence of cervical incompetence after removal of the complete septum is rare.Possibly impeding vaginal delivery in a subsequent pregnancy.
40Hysteroscopic metroplasty of the complete uterine septum, duplicate cervix, and vaginal septum Objective: To determine if sectioning of the cervical septum in hysteroscopic metroplasty of the complete uterineseptum is associated with intraoperative bleeding, cervical incompetence, and secondary infertility.Design: Multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial.Setting: University hospitals.Patient(s): Twenty-eight women with a diagnosis of complete uterine septum who had a history of pregnancywastage or infertility. They were randomized into two groups: group A underwent metroplasty including sectionof the cervical septum; group B underwent the same procedure with preservation of the cervical septum.Intervention(s): Hysteroscopic metroplasty was performed for all patients in the two groups.Main Outcome Measure(s): Operating time, distending media deficit, total distending media used, intraoperativebleeding, complications, and reproductive outcome.Result(s): Operating times were minutes and minutes in group A and group B,respectively. Distending media deficit was mL in group A, while in group B it wasTwo cases of pulmonary edema and three cases of significant bleeding (150 mL) were seen in groupB. The cesarean section rate was significantly higher in group B. There were no significant differences in thereproductive outcome in the two groups.Conclusion(s): Resection of the cervical septum during hysteroscopic metroplasty of complete uterine septummakes the procedure safer, easier, and less complicated than the procedure with preservation of the cervicalseptum. This procedure is recommended for all cases of complete uterine septumMohammad Ebrahim Parsanezhad, 2006
41A. )The cervical septum is incised with the scissors A.)The cervical septum is incised with the scissors. (B) The external cervical os is completely normal. (C) Dilatation of thecervical canal before the uterine septum resection.
42What is the role of laparoscopy ? To differentiate accurately between a septate and a bicornuate uterus.To monitor hysteroscopic surgery (Perforation).To complete the diagnostic workup in patients with infertility.To aspirate any distention fluid that has leaked into the abdomen during the hysteroscopic procedure.
43Postoperative Management There is no role for the routine postoperative use of an IUD.The beneficial role of routine antibiotic therapy has not been firmly established.The administration of estrogen after hysteroscopic metroplasty probably is unnecessary.
44Postoperative management Once the postoperative examination (by HSG, hysteroscopy, or US) reveals normal findings, there is no reason to delay attempts at pregnancy for >2 cycles.Reproductive performance was not adversely affected by a residual septum of up to 1 cm.
50Septum prognoz (bekleme vs. Tedavi) %DüşükErken doğumDış gebelikTerm doğumCanlı doğum%DüşükErken doğum 6.8Dış gebelikTerm doğumCanlı doğumHeinonen 1982, Buttram 1983, Acien 1993, Raga 1997DeCherney 1986, Fayez 1986, Valla ve Sciarria 1986, March ve Israel1987, Perino 1987, Daly 1989, Choe ve Baggish 1992, Fedele 1993,Grimbizis 1998
51Hysteroscopic septum resection in patients with unexplained infertility Group I consisted of 69 women (mean±SD age 30±4) with unexplainedinfertility of at least two years duration. Criteria for inclusionwere1. no endocrine disorders with at least six months of regular biphasicbasal body temperature records,2. progesterone levels above 2 ng/ml in the mid-luteal phase,3. patency of the Fallopian tubes demonstrated by laparoscopy,4. partners with normal semen analyses.S. Venturoli, 2002
52Reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic metroplasty in % 11.5Objective: To evaluate the reproductive outcome of hysteroscopic metroplasty performed in women withseptate uterus and otherwise unexplained primary infertility.Design: Prospective, observational study.Setting: Tertiary center for reproductive medicine.Patient(s): Sixty-one patients with uterine septa and otherwise unexplained primary infertility.Intervention(s): Hysteroscopic division of the uterine septum.Main Outcome Measure(s): Reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic metroplasty.Result(s): Of 61 women, 25 (41%) conceived within 8–14 (mean 11.2) months after hysteroscopic metroplasty.Of these, 18 (29.5% of the total group) had live births (13 carried to term and 5 had preterm deliveries),and 7 (11.5% of the total group) had spontaneous abortions. Cervical cerclage was performed in 9 women;only 1 (11.1%) of these patients and 4 (44.4%) of the 9 who did not have a cerclage had preterm deliveries.Twelve of the 18 women (66.6%) who had live births were delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion(s): Women with uterine septum and otherwise unexplained infertility might benefit from hysteroscopicmetroplasty.Recai Pabuccu and Victor Gomel, 2004
53RANDOMİZE ÇALIŞMALAR: Septum-İnfertilite (Tedavi vs. Bekleme) 123456
54Hysteroscopic resection of the septum improves the pregnancy rate of women with unexplained infertility: a prospective controlled trialSurgeryObjective: To assess fecundity of infertile women after surgical correction of uterine septum.Design: Prospective controlled trial.Setting: Three academic infertility clinics.Patient(s): Forty-four women affected by septate uterus and otherwise unexplained infertility represented thestudy group (group A), and 132 women with unexplained infertility were enrolled as control subjects (group B).Intervention(s): Hysteroscopic metroplasty was performed in group A, and group B was managed expectantly. Allwomen were followed-up for 1 year without any other intervention.Main Outcome Measure(s): Fecundity rate was calculated as the number of pregnancies per 100 person-monthsResult(s): Pregnancy rate (38.6% vs. 20.4%) and live birth rate (34.1% and 18.9%) were significantly higher ingroup A than in group B. The survival analysis showed that the probability of a pregnancy in the twelve-monthsfollow up was significantly higher in patients who had undergone metroplasty than in women with unexplainedinfertility. The corresponding fecundity (10-week pregnancy) rates were 4.27 and 1.92 person-months in womenwho had undergone metroplasty and in women with unexplained infertility, respectively.Conclusion(s): Hysteroscopic resection of the septum improves fecundity of women with septate uterus and otherwiseunexplained infertility. Patients with septate uterus and no other cause of sterility have a significantly higherprobability of conceiving after removal of the septum than patients affected by idiopathic sterilityAntonio Mollo, 2008
5526 Residu sonra cerrahi 58 no residu 7 rezidu BACKGROUND: To learn more about the obstetric outcome after initial septum resection and remnant septum (< or =1 cm) resection. METHODS: In 94 patients with septate uteri who underwent uterine septum resection, the reproductive efficiency was analysed in a prospective observational study. The reproductive outcome was analysed after initial resection and (if required) consecutive procedures. RESULTS: A total of 94 women were enrolled in the study; all had had two or more miscarriages. The septum was completely removed during the first hysteroscopy in 58 (62%) cases. A residual septum was observed in 36 (38%) patients. Subsequent operative hysteroscopy was performed in the cases (29/36; 80.5%) involving repeated miscarriage and unsuccessful conception. The minimum observation time was 24 months. The difference in delivery rate after the first hysteroscopy between those with a normalized uterine cavity (26/58; 44.8%) and those with remnants (7/36; 19.4%) was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In fact, following the normalization of the uterine cavity, 62.1% (18/29) of the patients delivered, as compared with 19.4% of those (7/36) with a residue and Kaplan-Meyer curves revealed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Women with a remnant uterine septum have an increased chance of successful pregnancy with an improved obstetric outcome after normalization of the uterine cavity.7 rezidu
58Septum-Tedavi endikasyonları Tekrarlayan gebelik kayıplarıDüşükler1 Düşük2 Düşük3 DüşükErken doğumİnfertilitePrimerSekonderARTÖncesindeBaşarısız denemeler sonrasıAsemptomatik/primer dismenoraSeptumun kesilmesi tekrarlayan gebelik kayıpları, obstetrik komplikasyonlar ve IVF öncesi önerilir.Septumu HSG ile tespit edilen infertilite hastalarında tedavisi tartışmalıdır.İnfertilite1. unexplained infertilitesi olanlardayaş3. Başka nedenle LS veya HS yapılanlarda4.ART ye gideceklerde yapılmalıdır.
60Kime septum rezeksiyonu yapalım Kime septum rezeksiyonu yapalım ? Hysteroscopic removal of the septum may be considered in the following populations:Uzun süre açıklanamayan infertilite35 yaş üstüBaşka nedenlerle L/S ve H/S yapılacaklardaART düşünülen olgulardaMinimal uterine septumlar(1,5 cm’ den küçük) ve arkuat uterusun düzeltilmesi gerekmez. Luca Mencaglia et all.1997,Susa Davie et all 1997Klinik olarak gerekmedikçe H/S ile uterin anomalileri düzeltmek fertiliteyi düzeltici etkisi olmadığı için önerilmez.(B)Hayden A. Homer, 2000
61Finally, IVF is less successful in women with a septate uterus compared with women who have undergone metroplasty. For this reason, hysteroscopic metroplasty should be considered in women before undergoing IVF, an emotionally and financially expensive procedureHowever, women with a septate uterus and otherwise unexplained infertility may benefit from metroplasty, although the improvement in pregnancy rate is relatively modest in comparison with those who experienced recurrent pregnancy lossElizabeth Taylor and Victor Gomel, 2008
63Uterine rupture at the 29th week of subsequent pregnancy after hysteroscopic resection of uterine septumObjective: To describe a patient with uterine rupture in the subsequent pregnancy after hysteroscopic resection ofa uterine septum.Design: Case report.Setting: University hospital.Patient(s): A 30-year-old nulliparous woman, with a history of a first trimester spontaneous abortion, hysteroscopicuterine septum resection by cutting diathermy using the operating hysteroscope, and a second hysteroscopicprocedure for a residual septum, was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of hemodynamic shock at the 29th weekof gestation.Intervention(s): Immediate laparotomy was performed.Main Outcome Measure(s): Uterine rupture in the second trimester of the subsequent pregnancy with fetal loss.Result(s): Midfundal complete uterine rupture was observed at the site of the resected uterine septum, accompaniedby an extrauterine exanimate fetus.Conclusion(s): Uterine rupture may occur in pregnancies after hysteroscopic resection of the uterine septum.Clinicians who perform this procedure, especially in the cases with repeated procedures using cutting diathermy,must warn and inform their patients about the risks of their later pregnanciesŞatıroğlu MH, 2009
68Is hysteroscopic correction of an incomplete uterine septum justified prior to IVF? This retrospective study examined the effect of hysteroscopic correction of an incomplete uterine septum on IVF outcome.Measurement of the Fm (fundal myometrial thickness) and Cm (cornual myometrial thickness) was performed bysonohysterography. Group 1 included patients diagnosed with incomplete septum (n = 119), fulfi lling the two criteria of Fm>11 mm and Fm–Cm >5 mm, who underwent hysteroscopic incision of the incomplete septum. Group 2 consisted of 116age-matched control patients with a normal uterine cavity who underwent IVF within the same time period. Main outcomemeasures were clinical pregnancy and spontaneous abortion rates. Patients in group 1 had a history of more spontaneousabortions than patients in group 2 (14.20 versus 6.03%, P = 0.04) as well as higher previous IVF failure (32.7 versus 20.6%,P = 0.04). After surgical correction of the septum in group 1, IVF pregnancy outcome was similar in both groups (clinicalpregnancy and pregnancy loss of versus 46.50% and versus 20.3% respectively). A similar pregnancy outcomewas found after the incision of the incomplete septum compared with a group with normal uterine cavity. Larger prospectiveand randomized controlled studies are needed to prove the positive effect of correction of an incomplete uterine septum onIVF outcome.Ozgur K, 2007