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Types of Translation Neslihan Kansu-Yetkiner ETI 301.

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1 Types of Translation Neslihan Kansu-Yetkiner ETI 301

2 R. Jacobson’s Semiotic Classification Semiotic approach to language ('there is no signatum without signum' (1959:232) - three kinds of translation: Intralingual (within one language, i.e. rewording or paraphrase) Interlingual (between two languages) Intersemiotic (between sign systems) interlingual translation (use of synonyms in order to get the ST message across): i.e.: in interlingual translations there is no full equivalence between code units

3 Intralingual translation ŞERMİN'İN ELİFBESİ Elifbe'ni oku cicim Elif, be, te, se, cim, çim, Ha, hı, dal, zen, sin... yok, zel, rı, Ze, Je, sin, şın, sad, dad, tı, zı, Ayın, gayın, fe, kaf, kem, lâm, Yok, lâmelif; bir de gef var. Bir de üç noktalı kef var. Hangi harfler kalındırlar? Ha, hı, sad, dad, tı, zı, ayın, Gayın. Peki, bir de kaf var. En kalını gayın.

4 Binary classification -Free vs. Literal -Covert vs. overt Semantic vs. communicative Documantary vs. instrumental

5 Sonnet 66 Tired with all these, for restful death I cry, As, to behold desert a beggar born, And needy nothing trimm'd in jollity, And purest faith unhappily forsworn, And guilded honour shamefully misplaced, And maiden virtue rudely strumpeted, And right perfection wrongfully disgraced, And strength by limping sway disabled, And art made tongue-tied by authority, And folly doctor-like controlling skill, And simple truth miscall'd simplicity, And captive good attending captain ill: Tired with all these, from these would I be gone, Save that, to die, I leave my love alone. –William Shakespeare

6 66. Sone bezdim hepsinden, ölüm gelse de huzur getirse; hangisini saysam: haklının hakkı hıç verilmez; allı pullu giysi düşer, bes para etmez serseriye; en güvendiğin adam seni aldatmaktan çekinmez. ona buna hayasızca yaldızlı paye dağıtılır, tertemiz genç kıza düşüncesizce damga vurulur. sarsak yönetimlerce becerikli insanlar engellenir, kusursuz adını hak etmişe haksızca leke sürülür. kültürle bilimin dili bağlanir yetkili kişilerce bilgiç geçinen şarlatanlar yönetir bilgili adamı, ıyilik kıskıvrak kul köle edilir kötülüğe, doğru sözlü kişinin aptala çıkartılır adı. bezdim işte bunlardan ve hiç durmam bana kalsa; ölmek, sevdiğimi bir başına bırakıp gitmek olmasa. Çevirne: Bülent Bozkurt

7 Vaz Geçtim Bu Dünyadan ( Shakespeare 66.Sone) Vazgeçtim bu dünyadan Tek ölüm paklar beni Değmez bu yangın yeri Avuç açmaya değmez Değil mi ki çiğnenmiş inancın en seçkini Değil mi ki yoksullar mutluluktan habersiz Ezilmiş hor görülmüş el emeği göz nuru Ödlekler gecmiş başa derken mertlik bozulmuş Değil mi ki korkudan dili bağlı sanatın Değil mi ki çılgınlık sahip çıkmış düzene Doğruya doğru derken eğriye çıkmış adın Değil mi ki kötüler kadı olmuş yemen'e Vazgeçtim bu dünyadan Dünyamdan geçtim ama Seni yalnız komak var O koyuyor adama... Vaz Geçtim Bu Dünyadan ( Türkçe söyleyen: Can Yücel

8 Free vs. Literal Literal: word for word translation, so ungrammatical; the closest possible grammatical translation. Barhudarov (1993) “the smaller the unit of translation the more literal the result, and the larger the unit, the freer the result.

9 Covert vs. Overt Translation by J. House Overt Translation where the traces or features of SL text still remains in the translated text. Covert Translation: the specifities of the Source culture are assimitlaed in the target language culture via a cultural filter such as the translated text looks like a new one or again as a text which is perefctly integrated into target culture.

10 Overt: TT addressees not being directly addressed (by ST); ST tied to SL community and its culture; ST directed towards SL addressees but of interest to TL readers. Covert: ST not specifically aimed at SL readers; TT enjoys status of an original in TL culture ST and TT have equivalent purpose. House (1997)

11 Newmark’s Semantic vs. Communicative Translation Nida's 'receptor'-oriented approach is 'illusory': The gap between SLT and TLT will always remain a permanent problem in both TR theory and practice How can the gap be narrowed?: SEMANTIC vs COMMUNICATIVE translation... attempts to produce on its readers an effect as close as possible to that obtained on the readers of the original. (cf. Nida's dynamic eq.)... attempts to render, as closely as the semantic and syntactic structures of the second language allow, the exact contextual meaning of the original.

12 Documentary vs. Instrumental Classification according to TT function: A documentary translation: A documentary translation is manifestly a document of another text, it is overtly a translation of something else. Insofar as it presents itself as a report of another communication, it is a bit like reported speech. An instrumental translation :Instrumental translation, on the other hand, functions as an instrument of communication in its own right, it works independently of a source text, and is judged on how well it expresses its message. So instrumental translation is a bit like direct speech.. Nord (1997)

13 Instrumental translating: ST words are of no relevance to TT readers; What counts is being able to assemble the equipment; Focus on ‘perlocutionary effect’ or reader response. Can be co-written instead of translated.

14 The language functions: An overview The language functions are basically established in the bases if what the speaker/writer does, or wants to do, or achieve, with the text in question and on the intended effect on the readership.

15 The functions are: the expressive function: expresses the speaker/writer's mind and feelings the informative function: expresses the fact or reality outside of language, expressed in the text (what Newmark calls the truth and what others call the propositional content of the text) the vocative function: focusing on the listener/reader and the textual effect on them the aesthetic function: directed at pleasing the senses through sound and imagery the phatic function: maintenance of friendly relations, or friendly contact, with the listener/reader without too much focus on information and content the metalingual function: allowing you to use language to talk/write about language and communication

16 The three primary functions 1-The Expressive function The expressive function of language allows one to express one's mind or feelings. Examples of text types that fall under the rubric of the expressive function are: serious imaginative literature: lyrical poetry, short stories, novels and plays ●authoritative statements: texts by authors who are authoritative figures within the field they ●write about such as political speeches and documents by party leaders legal documents, acknowledged academic works by authoritative figures etc. autobiographies, essays, personal correspondences etc.

17 2-The informative function The informative function of language covers those parts of language that allow you to express a certain factual content or topic. Texts falling under this function are typically textbooks, technical reports, articles in newspapers and periodicals, scientific papers and the like.

18 Examples: -academic papers: formal, non-emotive, technical in style; passives, present and perfect tenses, literal language, Latinized vocabulary, technical jargon, nominal compounds, few metaphors -textbooks: neutral and informal in style: first person plurals, present tenses, dynamic active verbs and basic conceptual metaphors -popular science texts and art books: informal and warm (WTF?) in style; simple syntactic structures, wide range of vocabulary which is yet simple, stock metaphors

19 3-The vocative functions The vocative function, just like the vocative case in Latin and vocative tags in English, is to do with the effect of language upon the reader/listener, but also the impact of the relation between sender and recipient upon the style of the text. The following are typically dependent on the relation between sender and recipient: forms of address (T/V distinction imperatives subjunctives passives/actives titles “please”-tags and other politeness markers

20 The secondary functions the aesthetic function: aspects of language that please the senses such as metaphors, rhymes,alliterations, onomatopoeia etc., all of which are often extremely difficult to translate. the phatic function: which allows for the maintenance of friendly contact between writer/speaker and reader/listener and covers phaticisms like “How are you?”, ”, “You know” as well as certain modal particles.

21 Reiss (1970s) Functional approach Classification of texts as: 'informative‘ 'expressive‘ 'operative‘ 'audiomedial'

22 Reiss (1971) Text types

23 Reiss > Chesterman (1989) Text types and varieties

24 To decide on text type and to determine the adequacy of the TT Check list by K. Reiss: -Intrainguistic criteria: semantic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic features. -Extralinguistic Criteria:Situation, field subject, time, place, autho sender’s / receiver’s implications.

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27 Gül: Ziyaret AB'yi ilgilendirmez AB'nin Sudan lideri El Beşir'in ziyaretiyle ilgili Türkiye'ye nota vermesine cevap Cumhurbaşkanı Gül'den geldi: "Ziyaret AB'yi ilgilendrimez." BRÜKSEL - Avrupa Birliği, Uluslararası Ceza Mahkemesi'nin hakkında tutuklama kararı çıkarttığı Sudan Cumurbaşkanı Ömer El Beşir'in üçüncü Türkiye ziyaretiyle ilgili Ankara'ya nota iletti. Notada, Türkiye'nin katılım sürecinde Avrupa Birliği politikalarıyla uyumlu olmayı taahüt ettiği hatırlatılıyor ve şu ifadeler yer alıyor: "AB, katılım ortaklığının, birliğin ortak poziyonu ve politikalarıyla uyumu da içerdiğini Türkiye'ye hatırlatır. AB, aynı zamanda Roma Anlaşması'nı imzalayan bir ülke olan Türkiye'nin katılım ortaklığından dolayı taahhütlerini yerine getirmesini beklemektedir. Bu çerçevede AB, Türkiye'nin El Beşir'e yaptığı davetin gözden geçirilmesi ve Uluslarası Ceza Mahkemesi ile işbirliğine gitmesi çağrısında bulunmaktadır."

28 Exercises…


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