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Nortel Corporate Presentation

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1 Nortel Corporate Presentation
ENUM - Elektronik Numaralandırma E.164 Tabanlı Haberleşme Ağları (PSTN, GSM ...) ile İnternet ve Diğer IP Tabanlı Ağların Birleşmesine Giden Yol Hazırlayan Nortel Netaş AR-GE ENUM Takımı Pelin Çorak Nar Fatih Nazlıgül Ali Kemal Mayuk Seyit Erdal Kaplan Sunan Ali Kemal Mayuk © 2004 Nortel

2 Problem Tanımı Sadece bir telefon (E.164) numarasına sahipken; ağ elemanları (gatewayler, SIP sunucuları ...) İnternet üzerinde servisleri nasıl bulacaklar? IP-tabanlı bir terminali PSTN’den nasıl adresleyeceğiz? Telefon numaraları İnternet servislerine ulaşmak için nasıl kullanılabilir? ? sip: mailto: tel: tel: SIP UA ? 2 CS2K PSTN Gateway 1 ? PSTN Trunk MG

3 Motivasyon Yeni Nesil Ağ (NGN) Çözümleri IMS Ağı ve Uygulamaları
Tümleşik İletişim (Unified Communications) Numara Taşınabilirliği ...

4 ENUM(E.164 NUmber Mapping )
Nortel Corporate Presentation ENUM, DNS* sistemini kullanarak E.164 Numaralarını (telefon numaraları) URI bilgilerine eşleştirmek suretiyle (mapping) PSTN, GSM gibi haberleşme ağları ile İnternet ve diğer IP tabanlı ağların birleşmesini mümkün kılmaktadır. *DNS : (Domain Name Server) : İnternet Alan Adı Sunucusu **URI : (Uniform Resource Identifier) Tekdüzen Kaynak Tanımlayıcısı ENUM DNS PSTN, GSM.. IP Ağlar Adresleme Sistemi – E164 (Telefon Numaraları) Tel: Fax: Mob: Adresleme Sistemi -URI lar tel: © 2004 Nortel

5 Telefon Numarasından ENUM’a
Bir telefon numarasının DNS sistemine dönüştürülmesi için „e164.arpa“ internet üst alan adı yürürlüğe konulmuştur. Bu üst alan adı altında telefon numaralarının rakamları subdomain olarak kullanılmaktadır. 1. E.164 numarası alınır. 2. Rakamlar hariç tüm simgeler çıkarılır ve numara ters çevrilerek araya noktalar konur. 3. ENUM-Domain’i eklenir. e164.arpa Bu şekildeki elde edilen bir tam nitelikli alan adı ("Fully Qualified Domain Name" = FQDN) ile DNS sistemine ENUM sorgusu yapılarak E.164 numarasına karşı gelen NAPTR(Naming Authority Pointer) kayıtları DNS’den istenir. Query: e164.arpa? ENUM DNS Response: ...

6 ENUM, DNS ve NAPTR Kayıtları
Niye DNS ? dan beri kullanımda Milyarlarca isme ölçeklenebilir Güvenilir Mükemmel geçerlilik Uygulama ve kullanım basit Hiyerarşik modeli telefon numaralarına uygun „Zaten mevcut; KULLANALIM !“ ENUM, DNS kayıt tiplerinden biri olan NAPTR (Naming Authority Pointer) kayıt tipini kullanır. $ORIGIN e164.arpa. IN NAPTR "u" "E2U+sip" . IN NAPTR "u" "E2U+voice:tel" "!^.*$!tel: !" . IN NAPTR "u" "E2U+ifax:mailto" "!^.*$!mailto: . IN NAPTR "u" "E2U+ mailto" "!^.*$!mailto: . IN NAPTR "u" "E2U+web:http" "!^.*$!http://www.example.com.tr!" . IN NAPTR "u" "E2U+sip" . Class RR Type Order Preference Service Regular Expression Replacement Flags

7 Örnek ENUM Mimarisi

8 Örnek ENUM Mimarisi Root arpa, com, edu, org, net Tier 0 e164.arpa
International Tier 1 Registry National 0.9.e164.arpa Registrars 1.. n Tier 2 Registry e164.arpa NAPTR Record Kullanıcılar

9 ENUM Servisleri ENUM Servisleri kayıtlı olmalıdır.
IANA: Internet Assigned Number Authority Mevcut Kayıtlı ENUM Servisleri sip, h323, ifax, pres (presence services), web, ft (file transfer), , fax, sms, mms, ems, vpim (calendaring),voice, pstn, vCard, xmpp (Jabber Chat Protocol), IM (Instant Messaging), ical, voicemsg, videomsg, unifmsg IANA de Kayıtlı Bazı ENUM Servisleri Örnekleri

10 ENUM’ın Tarihçesi Protokol geliştirmeleri (IETF)*
1998: İlk taslak spesifikasyon yayınlandı . 1999: ENUM çalışma grubu kuruldu . 2000: RFC 2916 (E.164 number and DNS) yayınlandı. 2002: „Ara prosedürler “ ITU/RIPE **, çeşitli ENUM denemelerine başlandı . 2004: yeni RFC 3761 (The E.164 to Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) Application (ENUM)) yayınlandı; Avusturya ticari amaçlı ENUM’a kayıt olan ilk ülkedir. 2007: Yapısal (Infrastructure) ENUM RFC oldu (RFC 5067 Infrastructure ENUM Requirements). Yayılma 2002: Denemeler çeşitli ülkelerde (Özellikle Avrupa) yapılmaya başlandı . 2004: Avusturya ticari amaçlı ENUM kullanımına başladı. * IETF : The Internet Engineering Task Force ** RIPE :Réseaux IP Européens

11 ENUM’la ilgili Organizasyonlar
IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force IAB - Internet Architecture Board ITU-T - International Telecommunication Union / Telecom RIPE NCC - RIPE Network Coordination Centre RIPE - Réseaux IP Européens ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute

12 ENUM Delegasyonu Almak İçin
RIPE NCC ülke kodu seviyesinde e.164’ü yönetir. RIPE NCC sadece ITU’nun talimatlarına göre hareket ederek teknik altyapıyı düzenler. Üst seviye „Ara prosedürler“ : Delegasyon İsteği RIPE’a gelir. (örnek “+90”) RIPE NCC isteği ITU’ya iletir. ITU yerel düzenleyici (local regulator) ile irtibata geçer. Düzenleyici kararını ITU’ya bildirir. ITU, RIPE NCC’ye kabul veya red için talimat verir. RIPE e164.arpa & WHOIS veritabanlarını günceller. (http://www.db.ripe.net/whois) ENUM uygulamaları dünyada ilk defa Avusturya tarafından (3.4.e164.arpa) 2004 yılının sonlarında ticari kullanıma açılmıştır. ENUM dünyada çeşitli ülkelerde kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. 43 Austria Regulator 11/04 49 Germany DENIC 02/06 44 UK DTI/Nominum 10/08 ... Tier-0 Tier-1 Tier-2 Registry Provider International-RIPE-NCC & ITU-TSB National CC 43 CC 1 Türkiye’nin ülke kodu seviyesinde ENUM kullanımı için müracaat etmediği görülmektedir.

13 ENUM Uygulamaları- Tamamen VoIP Çağrı Kurulumu
ENUM DNS e164.arpa = e164.arpa VoIP Switch Internet VoIP Switch

14 ENUM Uygulamaları- PSTN’den VoIP’ye Çağrı Kurulumu
ENUM DNS e164.arpa = e164.arpa Gateway IP PSTN LEC Switch VoIP Switch

15 ENUM ile “Düşük Masraflı Yönlendirme” (least cost routing)
Nortel Corporate Presentation ENUM DNS VoIP / Internet PBX Asterisk app_enumlookup PSTN 15 © 2004 Nortel

16 ENUM Uygulamaları-Tümleşik İletişim (UC- Unified Communications)
Farklı iletişim modları için tümleşik iletişim: ENUM; E.164 telefon numarasını kullanarak tek bir erişim noktası sağlar. – Ses/VoIP – Internet Fax – .... ENUM DNS SIP Telefonu Kullanıcı-B ENUM Query ENUM Response fail Kullanıcı B’nin E.164 Numarası H.323 Telefonu Kullanıcı-B Soft Switch fail PSTN Kullanıcı A ok Smart Telefon(push ) Kullanıcı-B

17 ENUM Uygulamaları-IMS(1)
ENUM, IMS’in ayrılmaz bir parçasıdır. Tamamen VoIP Çağrı Akışı

18 ENUM Uygulamaları-IMS(2)
PSTN’den VoIP’ye Çağrı Akışı

19 ENUM Uygulamaları- Numara Taşınabilirliği (PSTN->PSTN)
ENUM DNS IMS/ VOIP IMS ENUM Query CDPN ENUM Response tel:+ ” CDPN ” NPDI rn= ”RN ” 2 3 SIP INVITE tel:+ ” CDPN ” 1 Soft Switch H248 H248 ISUP MG MG MG 4 IAM CDPN RN PSTN-2 PSTN-1 PORTED

20 ENUM Uygulamaları- Numara Taşınabilirliği (PSTN->IP)
ENUM DNS IMS/ VOIP IMS ENUM Response sip:+ ” CDPN ” NPDI rn= ”RN user=phone ENUM Query CDPN 2 3 SIP INVITE sip:+ ”CDPN ” rn= ”RN user=phone npdi=yes 4 INVITE tel:+ ” CDPN ” 1 Soft Switch PORTED H248 MG PSTN

21 ENUM Uygulamaları- Numara Taşınabilirliği (IP->IP)
IMS/ VOIP ENUM DNS IMS ENUM Response sip:+ ” CDPN ” NPDI rn= ”RN user=phone domain2.com ENUM Query CDPN 2 3 SIP 4 INVITE sip:+ ”CDPN ” rn= ”RN user=phone npdi=yes INVITE sip:+ ” CDPN user=phone 1 Soft Switch PORTED IMS/ VOIP domain1.com

22 Nortel ENUM Çözümü- Senaryo Örnekleri
DNS/ENUM CS2K ENUM Query IMS CCS7 IAM 2 A SIP INVITE 1 SIP INVITE 3 4 PSTN SIP UA VoIP PVG15K DNS/ENUM CS2K ENUM Query IMS 2 B SIP INVITE SIP INVITE 3 4 PBX SETUP 1 SIP UA VoIP PVG15K DNS/ENUM CS2K ENUM Query IMS 2 C SIP INVITE SIP INVITE 3 4 Offhook and Digits 1 SIP UA VoIP Line MG

23 ENUM Varyasyonları Yapısal (infra) ENUM sorgulama konfigürasyon
Telefon Operatörü (Carrier) A Yapısal(Infrastructure) ENUM ile Çağrı Kurulumu Telefon Operatörü (Carrier) B Peering Kullanıcı (User) ENUM sorgulama konfigürasyon PBX Kullanıcı A PBX Kullanıcı B Kullanıcı(User) ENUM ile Çağrı Kurulumu

24 Sonuç ENUM uygulaması ile bir tek ENUM numarası altında ev ve işyerindeki telefon, faks ve cep telefonu numaralarına, şahsi ve işyerindeki adreslerine, web sitesi gibi çeşitli URI’lara ulaşma imkanı mevcuttur. ENUM, telefon şirketleri için Numara Taşınabilirliği ve Çağrı Yönlendirmeyi kolaylaştırmakta ve Akıllı Ağlar (IN) ile kıyaslandığında daha ucuz çözüm vaadetmektedir. ENUM sayesinde telekomünikasyon ile internet uygulamalarının bir çatı altında toplanması mümkündür. Telekom Endüstrisi ENUM’ın öneminin farkındadır ve ENUM Yeni Nesil(NGN) ve IMS Ağlarda etkili bir unsur olacaktır.

25 Nortel Corporate Presentation
TEŞEKKÜRLER… © 2004 Nortel

26 Nortel Corporate Presentation
TEŞEKKÜRLER… © 2004 Nortel

27 Nortel Corporate Presentation
TEŞEKKÜRLER… © 2004 Nortel

28 Nortel Corporate Presentation
TEŞEKKÜRLER… © 2004 Nortel

29 Nortel Corporate Presentation
TEŞEKKÜRLER… © 2004 Nortel

30 Detay Arastirmasi Gereken Konular
URI E.164 MCS IMS DNS Architecture DNS Record Types RFC for ENUM RFC 5071 for Infrastructure ENUM PBX Asterisk

31 URI: Uniform Resource Identifier
In computing, a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters used to identify a name or a resource on the Internet. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network (typically the World Wide Web) using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI. Computer scientists may classify a URI as a locator (URL), or a name (URN), or both. A URL is a URI that, in addition to identifying a resource, provides a means of acting upon or obtaining a representation of the resource by describing its primary access-mechanism or network "location". For example, the URL identifies a resource (Wikipedia's home page) and implies that a representation of that resource (such as the home page's current HTML code, as encoded characters) is obtainable via HTTP from a network host named

32 URI: Uniform Resource Identifier
Syntax The URI syntax is essentially a URI-scheme name such as: "HTTP" "FTP" "mailto" "URN" "tel" "rtsp" "file" Followed by a colon character, and then by a scheme-specific part. The specifications that govern the schemes determine the syntax and semantics of the scheme-specific part, although the URI syntax does force all schemes to adhere to a certain generic syntax that, among other things, reserves certain characters for special purposes (without always identifying those purposes). The URI syntax also enforces restrictions on the scheme-specific part, in order to, for example, provide for a degree of consistency when the part has a hierarchical structure. Percent-encoding, an often-misunderstood[by whom?] aspect of URI syntax, can add extra information to a URI.

33 E.164: The international public telecommunication numbering plan
E.164 is an ITU-T recommendation which defines the international public telecommunication numbering plan used in the PSTN and some other data networks. It also defines the format of telephone numbers. E.164 numbers can have a maximum of fifteen digits and are usually written with a + prefix. To actually dial such numbers from a normal fixed line phone, the appropriate international call prefix must be used. International phone numbers are usually written with a plus sign (+) before the phone number representing the international call prefix. The plus sign indicates the code required to dial out of one's country code.

34 E.164: The international public telecommunication numbering plan
Structure of the international E.164-number The international E.164-number for geographic areas (Figure 1) is composed of a variable number of decimal digits arranged in specific code fields. The international E.164-number code fields are the Country Code (CC) and the National (Significant) Number N(S)N.

35 E.164: The international public telecommunication numbering plan
Figure 1 shows the international E.164-number structure for geographic areas. Figure 1/E.164 – International E.164-number structure for geographic areas

36 IMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem
IMS began life as a 3GPP technology for 3G mobile networks, but has been adopted as a broader standard. It is in the development and early testing phase, and its impact remains to be seen. IMS builds on the SIP protocol. IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a generic architecture for offering multimedia and voice over IP services, defined by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). IMS is access independant as it supports multiple access types including GSM, WCDMA, CDMA2000, WLAN, Wireline broadband and other packet data applications. IMS will make Internet technologies, such as web browsing, , instant messaging and video conferencing available to everyone from any location. It is also intended to allow operators to introduce new services, such as web browsing, WAP and MMS, at the top level of their packet-switched networks

37 IMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem
Some of the possible applications where IMS can be used are: Presence services Full Duplex Video Telephony Instant messaging Unified messaging Multimedia advertising Multiparty gaming Videostreaming Web/Audio/Video Conferencing Push-to services, such as push-to-talk, push-to-view, push-to-video Effectively, IMS provides a unified architecture that supports a wide range of IP-based services over both packet- and circuit-switched networks, employing a range of different wireless and fixed access technologies.

38 DNS: Domain Name System
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participants. Most importantly, it translates domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical (binary) identifiers associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices worldwide. An often used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the "phone book" for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses. For example, translates to

39 DNS: Domain Name System
The Domain Name System also defines the technical underpinnings of the functionality of this database service. For this purpose it defines the DNS protocol, a detailed specification of the data structures and communication exchanges used in DNS, as part of the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). The DNS protocol was developed and defined in the early 1980s and published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (cf. History).

40 DNS: Domain Name System
DNS Structure The domain name space The domain name space consists of a tree of domain names. Each node or leaf in the tree has zero or more resource records, which hold information associated with the domain name. The tree sub-divides into zones beginning at the root zone. A DNS zone consists of a collection of connected nodes authoritatively served by an authoritative nameserver. (Note that a single nameserver can host several zones.) Administrative responsibility over any zone may be divided, thereby creating additional zones. Authority is said to be delegated for a portion of the old space, usually in form of sub-domains, to another nameserver and administrative entity. The old zone ceases to be authoritative for the new zone.

41 DNS: Domain Name System
Parts of a domain name A domain name usually consists of two or more parts (technically labels), which are conventionally written separated by dots, such as example.com. The rightmost label conveys the top-level domain (for example, the address has the top-level domain com). Each label to the left specifies a subdivision, or subdomain of the domain above it. Note: “subdomain” expresses relative dependence, not absolute dependence. For example: example.com is a subdomain of the com domain, and is a subdomain of the domain example.com. In theory, this subdivision can go down 127 levels. Each label can contain up to 63 octets. The whole domain name may not exceed a total length of 253 octets. [8] In practice, some domain registries may have shorter limits. A hostname refers to a domain name that has one or more associated IP addresses (e.g., the 'www.example.com' and 'example.com' domains are both hostnames, whereas the 'com' domain is not).

42 ENUM’la ilgili Organizasyonlar
IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force IAB - Internet Architecture Board ITU-T - International Telecommunication Union / Telecom RIPE NCC - RIPE Network Coordination Centre RIPE - Réseaux IP Européens ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute

43 ENUM’la ilgili Organizasyonlar
IETF -Internet Engineering Task Force Developed DNS extensions to map E.164 numbers into the DNS under RFC 3761 the DNS under RFC 3761 Related RFCs: RFC 3762 (H.323 URL), RFC 3764, RFC 3953, RFC 4002

44 ENUM’la ilgili Organizasyonlar
IAB -Internet Architecture Board Guardian of the DNS name space, responsible for ENUM on the Internet side MoU partner of ITU-T Definition of the procedures the Tier 0 registry operator has to follow when processing and answering registration requests of E.164 Country Codes

45 ENUM’la ilgili Organizasyonlar
ITU-T -International Telecommunication Union / Telecom Standardization. WTSA 2008 , Resolution 49 Guardian of the E.164 numbering, responsible for ENUM on the PSTN side MoU partner of IAB SG2 (Study Group 2) defines the procedures ITU-T has to follow when answering registration requests of E.164 Country Codes

46 ENUM’la ilgili Organizasyonlar
RIPE NCC -RIPE Network Coordination Centre Tier 0 registry operator of the ENUM root e164.arpa RIPE -Réseaux IP Européens Responsible for the development of Internet resource mapping using E.164 telephone numbers as identifiers, commonly known as ENUM. RIPE monitor, promote and identifies ways for the RIPE community to develop and nurture the use of ENUM.

47 ENUM’la ilgili Organizasyonlar
ETSI -European Telecommunications Standards Institute Published technical report and specifications : TS : ENUM Administration in Europe TR : ENUM scenarios for user and infrastructure ENUM TS : Minimum requirements for interoperability of ENUM implementations

48 ITU: The International Telecommunication Union
Abbreviations ITU: The International Telecommunication Union ITU-T: ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector 3GPP: 3rd Generation Partnership Project

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