1INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY LAW Lecture 10- Cybercrimes Dr. Kadir Bas
2Definition of Cybercrimes Cybercrimes can be defined in two ways:it can be defined as including all types of crimes committed through the cyberspace (broad definition). This definition covers the infringement of intellectual property rights and personal rights on the cyberspace.It can be defined as including only crimes which can only be committed through the cyberspace (narrow definition). This definition mainly covers hacking.
3Type of CybercrimesTurkish Criminal Code lists there types of cybercrimes within the meaning of narrower definition. These are:3 tane cybercrime suçu var:1.Entering an information technology system (bilisim sistemine girme)- Criminal Code art.243-2.Hindering or disrupting the system or deleting or changing data (Sistemi engelleme, bozma, verileri yok etme veya değiştirme) – Criminal Code art.244-3.illegal use of bank or credit cards (Banka veya kredi kartlarının kötüye kullanılması)- Criminal Code art.255-
4Entering Information Technology System Article 243 of the Criminal Code states that:Any person who unlawfully enters a part or whole of an information technology system and continue to stay there shall be sentence to imprisonment of up to one year or judicial fine.[Bir bilişim sisteminin bütününe veya bir kısmına, hukuka aykırı olarak giren ve orada kalmaya devam eden kimseye bir yıla kadar hapis veya adlî para cezası verilir.]
5Entering Information Technology System An unlawful entering an information technology system is punished in order to protect various interests, including:to protect the trust to information technology systemto protect privacy of the system usersto protect communication freedom of the users.
6Entering Information Technology System Physical element of the CrimeThis crime can be committed only if a person carries out the following two actions together:to unlawfully enter a part or whole of an information technology system; andto continue to stay there.Therefore, if a person only unlawfully enters an information system, but leave it immediately, this will not constitute this crime.
7Entering Information Technology System Moral Element of the CrimeUnlawfully Entering an information technology system and stay there will be a crime only if the person has an intention (kasit) to do this.If a person enter another person’s information technology system (such as facebook page) and stay there by mistake, this will not constitute a crime.
8Entering Information Technology System Defences that prevent criminal liabilityEntering an information technology system and continue to stay there will not be a crime if the person shows a defence that legalises his/her action.For example, if the owner of the information technology system has given permission to the person to enter his system, this entrance will not constitute a crime unless this person exceeds the limits of the permission.Entering an information system will not also be a crime if it is permitted by law.
9Entering Information Technology System Mitigating Factor (cezayi azaltici hal)Article 243 par. 2 states that:If the crime defined in the above paragraph is committed against systems which can be used upon paying a price, the punishment shall be decreased by half.[Yukarıdaki fıkrada tanımlanan fiillerin bedeli karşılığı yararlanılabilen sistemler hakkında işlenmesi halinde, verilecek ceza yarı oranına kadar indirilir]Systems which can be used upon paying a price can include:Websites which gives online services (example Neflix)Internet cafes
10Entering Information Technology System Aggravating Factor (cezayi arttirici hal)If this action results in the deletion or changing of the data included in the system, this will lead to an increase in punishment.for this purpose, the deletion or changing of the data must be done by mistake. If it is done intentionally, this will constitute the crime of hindering or disrupting the system or deleting or changing data.
11Hindering or Disrupting the System or Deleting or Changing Data Article 244 para. 1 of the Criminal Code states that:Any person who hinders or disrupts the working of an information technology system shall be sentenced to imprisonment from 1 year to 5 years.[Bir bilişim sisteminin işleyişini engelleyen veya bozan kişi, bir yıldan beş yıla kadar hapis cezası ile cezalandırılır.]Article 244 para 2 states that:Any person who garbles, deletes, changes or prevents access to the data in the system, or installs data into the system or sends the available data to other places shall be sentenced to imprisonment from 6 months to 3 years.[Bir bilişim sistemindeki verileri bozan, yok eden, değiştiren veya erişilmez kılan, sisteme veri yerleştiren, var olan verileri başka bir yere gönderen kişi, altı aydan üç yıla kadar hapis cezası ile cezalandırılır.]
12Hindering or Disrupting the System or Deleting or Changing Data Physical element of the crimes in Article 244The crime in para 1 can be committed if a person hinders or disrupts the working of an information technology systemFor example, sending virus to another person’s computer or sending tons of s to another person in order to block his access to his s.The crime in para 2 can be committed if a person carries out any of the following actions:garbling, deleting or changing the data in the systempreventing access to the data in the systeminstalling data into the systemsending the data in the system to other places
13Hindering or Disrupting the System or Deleting or Changing Data Moral Element of the CrimeThe crimes mentioned in Article 244 can only be committed intentionally.For example, If a person send virus to another person’s computer unintentionally, this will not constitute a crime.
14Hindering or Disrupting the System or Deleting or Changing Data Defences that prevent criminal liabilityThe actions mentioned above will not lead to criminal responsibility if they are permitted by the right holder or they are made in order to carry out a legal order.
15Hindering or Disrupting the System or Deleting or Changing Data Mitigating and Aggravating FactorsThere is no mitigating factor specific to the crimes in Article 244.According to paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article 22, the punishment mentioned in paragraphs 1 and 2 will be increased if:these crimes are committed on the systems of banks or credit institutions or public institutions or entities; orthey are committed in order to gain an unfair benefit for himself or another person.
16Illegal Use of Bank or Credit Cards Article 255 of the Criminal Code provides three types of crimes.According to Paragraph 1 of the article:If any person who acquires or holds bank or credit cards of another person(s) for whatever the reason provides unfair benefit for himself or another person by using these cards without consent of the card holder, he shall be sentenced to imprisonment from 3 years to 6 years and judicial fine.[Başkasına ait bir banka veya kredi kartını, her ne suretle olursa olsun ele geçiren veya elinde bulunduran kimse, kart sahibinin veya kartın kendisine verilmesi gereken kişinin rızası olmaksızın bunu kullanarak veya kullandırtarak kendisine veya başkasına yarar sağlarsa, üç yıldan altı yıla kadar hapis ve beşbin güne kadar adlî para cezası ile cezalandırılir.]Paragraph 2 of the article states that:Any person who creates, sells, transfers, purchases or accepts a falsified bank or credit card that can be linked to bank accounts of other persons shall be sentenced to imprisonment from 3 years to 7 years and judicial fine.[Başkalarına ait banka hesaplarıyla ilişkilendirilerek sahte banka veya kredi kartı üreten, satan, devreden, satın alan veya kabul eden kişi üç yıldan yedi yıla kadar hapis ve onbin güne kadar adlî para cezası ile cezalandırılır.]Paragraph 3 of the article states that:A person who provides unfair benefit for himself or another person by using a faked or falsified bank or credit card, unless this action constitutes another crime leading to heavier punishment, shall be sentenced to imprisonment from 4 years to 8 years and judicial fine.[Sahte oluşturulan veya üzerinde sahtecilik yapılan bir banka veya kredi kartını kullanmak suretiyle kendisine veya başkasına yarar sağlayan kişi, fiil daha ağır cezayı gerektiren başka bir suç oluşturmadığı takdirde, dört yıldan sekiz yıla kadar hapis ve beşbin güne kadar adlî para cezası ile cezalandırılır.]
17Illegal Use of Bank or Credit Cards Physical ElementsThe crime mentioned in para1 will be committed only if three actions are made together:to have acquired or hold bank or credit cards of another person(s) for whatever the reasonto use these cards without consent of the card holderto provide unfair benefit for himself or another person
18Illegal Use of Bank or Credit Cards Physical ElementsThe crime mentioned in para 2 will be committed if any of the following actions is made:to createto sellto transferto purchase orto accepts a falsified bank or credit card that can be linked to bank accounts of other persons.
19Illegal Use of Bank or Credit Cards Physical ElementsThe crime mentioned in para 3 will be committed only if two following actions are made together:to use a faked or falsified bank or credit cardto provides unfair benefit for himself or another personThe person who commits this crime will not be punished for this crime, if these actions constitute another crime which requires heavier punishment.
20Illegal Use of Bank or Credit Cards Moral ElementsThe crimes mentioned in Article 245 can only be committed intentionally.
21Illegal Use of Bank or Credit Cards Defences that prevent criminal liabilityThe actions mentioned above may lead to criminal responsibility even if they are permitted by the right holder.However, there will be no criminal responsibility if these crimes are committed in detriment to any of the following persons:spouselineal descendants (children, grand children) and ancestors (parents, grand parents) and those of his/her spouseadopter or adopted persons (evlat edinen ve evlatlik)Siblings (kardesler) who live in the same house.