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Survey Data Collection Methods. Advantages of Surveys Standardization Ease of administration Ability to tap the “unseen” Suitability to tabulation and.

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... konulu sunumlar: "Survey Data Collection Methods. Advantages of Surveys Standardization Ease of administration Ability to tap the “unseen” Suitability to tabulation and."— Sunum transkripti:

1 Survey Data Collection Methods

2 Advantages of Surveys Standardization Ease of administration Ability to tap the “unseen” Suitability to tabulation and statistical analysis Sensitivity to subgroup differences

3 Three Alternative Data Collection Modes Person-administered: an interviewer reads questions, either face-to-face or over the telephone, to the respondent and records his or her answers Computer-administered: computer technology plays an essential role in the interview work Self-administered: the respondent completes the survey on his or her own

4 Person-Administered Surveys In-Home Interview Key Advantages: Conducted in the privacy of the home, which facilitates interviewer-respondent rapport Can see “body language” Key Disadvantages: Cost per interview can be high Interviewers must travel to respondent’s home Comment: Often much information per interview is gathered

5 Person-Administered Surveys Mall-Intercept Interview Key Advantage: Fast and convenient data collection method Key Disadvantages: Only mall patrons are interviewed Respondents may feel uncomfortable answering the questions in the mall Comment: Mall-intercept company often has exclusive interview rights for that mall

6 Person-Administered Surveys In-Office Interview Key Advantage: Useful for interviewing busy executives Key Disadvantages: Relatively high cost per interview Gaining access is sometimes difficult Comment: Useful when respondents must examine prototypes or samples of products

7 Person-Administered Surveys Central Location Telephone Interviews Key Advantages: Fast turnaround Good quality control Reasonable cost Key Disadvantage: Restricted to telephone communication Comment: Long-distance calling is not a problem

8 Computer-Administered Surveys CATI Key Advantages: Computer eliminates human interviewer error Simultaneous data input to computer file Good quality control Key Disadvantage: Setup costs can be high Comment: Losing ground to online surveys and panels

9 Computer-Administered Surveys Computer-Assisted Interview Types (not online) Key Advantages: Respondent responds at his or her own pace Computer data file results Key Disadvantage: Respondent must have access to a computer or be computer literate Comment: Many variations and an emerging data collection method with exciting prospects

10 Computer-Administered Surveys Online Questionnaire Key Advantages: Ease of creating and posting Fast turnaround Computer data file results Key Disadvantage: Respondent must have access to the Internet Comment: Fastest growing data collection method; very flexible; online analysis available

11 Self-Administered Surveys Group Self-Administered Survey Key Advantages: Cost of interviewer eliminated Economical for assembled groups of respondents Key Disadvantage: Must find groups and gain permission to conduct the survey Comment: Group discourages asking questions

12 Self-Administered Surveys Drop-off Survey Key Advantages: Cost of interviewer eliminated Appropriate for local market surveys Key Disadvantage: Generally not appropriate for large-scale national survey Comment: Many variations exist with respect to logistics and applications

13 Self-Administered Surveys Mail Survey Key Advantages: Economical method Good list brokers available Key Disadvantages: Low response rates Self-selection bias Slow Comment: Many strategies to increase response rate exist

14 Choice of a Particular Survey Method The survey data collection time horizon If speed needed use telephone; online survey is also an excellent choice The survey data collection budget Mail or telephone may be cheapest (case-by- case comparison) Special considerations If respondent must see, feel, taste…use some form of personal interview…mall intercept

15 Traditional Telephone Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing Mail Interview Mail Panel Fig. 6.1 In-Home Mall Intercept Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing Internet Survey Methods TelephonePersonalMailElectronic

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17 Research Project: Targets for Development and Poverty Level in the New Millenium 2000 yilinda Birleşmiş Milletler bünyesinde 189 ülke temsilcisi taraf ı ndan imzalanan deklarasyonunun ortaya koydugu hedefler 1990–2015 dönem Milenyum Gelisme Hedefleri 1. Mutlak yoksullugun ve açlik sinirinin altinda yaşayan kişi sayisini yariya indirmek 2. Herkesin ilkögretim egitimi almasini saglamak 3. Cinsiyet eşitligini öne çikarmak ve kadini güçlendirmek 4. Beş yaş altindaki çocuk ölümlerini üçte iki oraninda azaltmak 5. Dogumdaki anne ölüm oraninin dörtte üç oraninda azaltmak 6. HIV/AIDS, s ı tma ve tüberküloz gibi diger hastaliklarin yayilmasini önlemek 7. Çevresel sürdürülebilirligi saglamak 8. Kalkinma için küresel işbirligini geliştirmek

18 Peki yurt ve dünya kamuoyu en önemli hedeflerden biri olan, yoksullukla mücadele konusunda ne düşünmektedir? Grafik dünya yoksullarinin yaşamlarini iyileştirmek için kullanilacagina inanilirsa herkesin yillik vergisinin %1 daha artirilmasina karşi olan 189 ulkenin tutumunu göstermektedir.

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20 Grafige göre Türkler, Italyanlar, Brezilyalilar ve Hintlilerle birlikte dünya yoksullarinin hayatlarini iyileştirmek için çok istekli görünmektedir. Ukrayna ve Rusya halkinin böyle bir öneriyi desteklememesi ilginçtir. Çinli ve Amerikalilarin ise bu öneriyi destekleyen son iki ülke olmasi anlamlidir. Öte yandan bu önerinin 2002–2006 dönemini kapsayan gelişimi, öneriyi destekleyen ülkelerde önemli bir düşüş göstermektedir. –Örnegin 2002 yilinda Türklerin %96’si bu öneriyi desteklerken 2006’da bu oran %77’ye düşmüştür.

21 Yoksullarin Hayatlarini Iyilestirmek icin Yillik Verginin %1 Artisini Destekleme

22 The GlobeScan Report 2006, GlobeScan tarafindan hazirlanmaktadir. Araştirma, dünyada 20 ülkede kişi ile görüşülerek gerçekleştirilmiş olup, Türkiye halkasi Yöntem Araştirma Danişmanlik tarafindan Mayýs/Haziran 2006 döneminde yürütülmüş ve Türkiye kent nüfusunu temsilen n=1,000 kişi ile yüz yüze anket teknigi kullanilarak görüşülmüştür.

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24 Designing Data Collection Forms

25 The Functions of a Questionnaire Translates the research objectives into specific questions Standardizes questions and all or some of the response categories Fosters cooperation and motivation Serves as permanent record of the research Can speed up the process of data analysis Can serve as the basis for reliability and validity measures

26 The Questionnaire Development Process

27 Developing Questions Research Questions A questionnaire (“survey”) item or question: statement or question used in research projects to obtain overt, written or oral communication from individual study participants Its intended function is to obtain meaningful responses from study participants. Survey item or question measures such as: Attitudes Beliefs Behaviors Demographics

28 Developing Questions “Shoulds” of Question Wording Question should be focused on a single issue or topic. No “double-barreled” questions. Question should be brief. Question should be interpreted the same way by all respondents; no ambiguity in word meaning. Question should use respondent’s core vocabulary. Keep wording simple. Question should be a grammatically simple sentence if possible.

29 Developing Questions “Should Nots” of Question Wording Question should not assume criteria that are not obvious. Question should not be beyond the respondent’s ability or experience; also, you do the math. Question should not use a specific example to represent a general case. Question should not ask the respondent to recall specifics when only generalities will be remembered. Question should not require the respondent to guess a generalization.

30 Questionnaire Organization Five Functions of the “Introduction” Identification of the survey or respondent Undisguised Disguised Purpose of survey Explanation of respondent selection Request for participation/provide incentive Incentives Anonymity Confidentiality Screening of respondent

31 Questionnaire Organization Typical Question Sequence Approaches to Question Flow Work approach: is employed when the researcher realizes that respondents will to need to apply different mental effort to groups of questions Sections approach: organizes questions into sets based on a common objective of questions in the set

32 Precoding the Questionnaire Precoding: placement of numbers on the questionnaire to represent answers; facilitates data entry after the “survey” has been completed Numbers are preferred for two reasons: Numbers are easier and faster to keystroke into a computer file Computer tabulation programs are more efficient when they process numbers

33 Pretesting the Questionnaire Pretest the entire survey process, including the questionnaire: sampling frame, sample draw, data gathering (mail, phone, online, etc.), editing, coding, file building, data entry, and preliminary analysis Questionnaire pretest: questionnaires; “10 percent change pretest rule” Changes: add Q’s, delete Q’s, modify Q’s, change order of Q’s Less than 10 percent change no new pretest, 10 percent or more, pretest again

34 Computer-Assisted Questionnaire Design Computer-assisted questionnaire design: software programs allow users to use computer technology to develop and disseminate questionnaires Advantages: Easier Faster Friendlier More functionality

35 Computer-Assisted Questionnaire Design…cont. Survey creation feature: Question list Question libraries Details Survey appearance Preview Publish Send notification

36 Computer-Assisted Questionnaire Design…cont. Creation of data files and data collection Data analysis and reports Performing the pretest of the questionnaire

37 Designing Observation Forms Observation forms: prepared so researchers can record the behaviors observed in observation studies Structuring observational studies using “build- up” or “break-down” approaches Build-up (“unstructured”): perform observations first, then build categories Break-down (“structured”): categories are created before observation and provided on observation forms

38 Anket Düzeni Kelimeler ve grafikler Graphics Bilgi organizasyonu Rota Rehberi İle uyumlu çalışmalı

39 Soru sıralaması Sorular cevaplayıcıya göre mantıksal bir sıra izlemeli İlk soru ilgili ve kolay olmalı Sorular önemliden en önemsize doğru sıralanarak sorulmalı Demografik sorular başta olmamalı Potansiyel olarak itiraz edilebilecek sorular sona doğru yerleştirilmeli

40 Soru sıralaması Soruların sıralanmasında aşağıdakilere de yanlılık yaratmaması için dikkat edilmelidir “Norm of even-handedness” (in which a. respondent tries to be fair in how they. answer the next question, based on their. answer to the preceding question ) "Should a Communist reporter be allowed to report on visit to America?" after question about American reporter in Soviet Union “Anchoring” "Cheating at American universities?" then "Cheating at Purdue" “Addition (carryover) effect” / “Subtraction effect” "How are things?" after "How is your marriage?"

41 Bir Rota Belirleme Sorularla ilgili açıklamalar eğer gerekiyorsa dogru yerlere yerleştirilmeli Matrisler kafa karıştırır: soruları aşağıdan yukarı ve soldan sağa doğru sıralayın Dikkat çekmek için daha büyük harfler kullanın Dikkat çekmek veya gruplama için renklendirme ve gölgelendirme kullanın

42 Bir Rota Belirleme… Başlangıç noktasını beirleyen semboller kullanın Soruları ardışık numaralandırın Tutarlı arka fonlar kullanın Soruları daha koyu cevapları daha açık renk harfler kullanark yazın

43 Anket dizayn problemleri Doğruluğu tehtid eden unsurlar: –Soruların amaçlandığı şekilde anlaşılmaması –Cevaplayanın başından geçenleri gerektiği gibi yansıtmıyor –Cevaplandırılması çok zor Bu problemler anketten elde edilecek olan veride görünmeyecektir Bu sorunları nasıl yakalayabiliriz?

44 Anket Formunun Test Edilmesi 1.Fokus grup tartışmaları 2.Bilişsel Mülakatlar 3.Saha ön-araştırması 4.Davranış kodlaması

45 Gerçekçi ve doğru cevaplar üreten Tek bir boyutta tek soru soran Tüm cevap olasılık ve kısıtlarını göz önüne alan Basit ve açık bir dil kullanan Sosyal kabuledilirliği (social desirability) minimize eden Ön-testi yapılmış İyi bir soru nasıl olmalı?

46 Social Desirability Nedir? Respondents will try to represent themselves to the interviewer (or on the questionnaire) in a way that reflects positively on them As questions become more threatening, respondents are more likely to overstate or understate behavior, even when the best question wording is used

47 Minimizing Social Desirability Use a self-administered Q rather than an interview (don’t have to “confess” to an interviewer) Ask a longer question, including reasons for the socially undesirable behavior (e.g., “Many people find it very hard to find time to exercise…”) Use the answer categories to “soften” the behavior (e.g., Average number of drinks per day: None, 1, 2, 3, 4-6, 7- 9, 10+) (rather than None, 1, 2, 3+) Ask for an “open-ended” response (no categories given): _____ drinks

48 Beware of “AND” and “OR” Bad Examples:  “How would you rate the support OR assistance you received through this program?”  “Do you agree or disagree that this program helped you to learn more about foods AND eat better?” Ask only 1 question at a time

49 It’s easier to say “yes” than “no” So…. Rather than ask “Do you like A?” ask “Do you like A or do you like B?” Alternatives to Yes/No

50 Rather than ask: “Are you satisfied with A?” Ask: How satisfied are you with A?  Would you say you are…very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not too satisfied, not at all satisfied?

51 Alternatives to Yes/No You can also ask the question this way: How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with A? –Would you say you are…very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, very dissatisfied?

52 OPEN VS. CLOSED QUESTIONS General rule: closed questions (response categories given) are usually better –Easier for the respondent –Less coding later –Better to have respondent do categorizing –Categories help define the question

53 Disadvantages of Closed Questions Categories may be leading to respondents May make it too easy to answer without thinking May limit spontaneity Not best when –asking for frequency of sensitive behaviors –there are numerous possible responses


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