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GERUNDS HAZIRLAYAN: ŞEYDA ERDURAN NO: 1090610154.

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... konulu sunumlar: "GERUNDS HAZIRLAYAN: ŞEYDA ERDURAN NO: 1090610154."— Sunum transkripti:

1 GERUNDS HAZIRLAYAN: ŞEYDA ERDURAN NO:

2 GERUNDS AS SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE a) Gerund bir cümlenin yada yan cümlenin öznesi olarak kullanılabilir. a) Gerund bir cümlenin yada yan cümlenin öznesi olarak kullanılabilir. b) Bir cümlenin öznesi gerund ise yüklem tekil bir fiilden oluşur.Ancak,iki gerund and ile bağlıysa çoğul fiilden oluşur. b) Bir cümlenin öznesi gerund ise yüklem tekil bir fiilden oluşur.Ancak,iki gerund and ile bağlıysa çoğul fiilden oluşur. c) İki gerund but yada or ile bağlıysa yine tekil fiil alır. c) İki gerund but yada or ile bağlıysa yine tekil fiil alır. d) Gerund ’ı olumsuz yapmak için başına not getirilir. d) Gerund ’ı olumsuz yapmak için başına not getirilir.

3 Example: Swimming is my favourite sport. Swimming is my favourite sport. Reading and swimming my favourite sports. Reading and swimming my favourite sports. Not speaking is sometimes relax people. Not speaking is sometimes relax people.

4 GERUND AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT Bir gerund fiilden sonra özneyi tanımlayan sözcük grubu olabilir. Bir gerund fiilden sonra özneyi tanımlayan sözcük grubu olabilir. The main quality needed in his job is being polite all the time. The main quality needed in his job is being polite all the time.

5 GERUND AS DIRECT OBJECT a) Bazı fiiller, kendilerinden sonra gelen fiili biçiminde gerund şeklinde alabilir. a) Bazı fiiller, kendilerinden sonra gelen fiili biçiminde gerund şeklinde alabilir. I enjoy walking by the sea very much I enjoy walking by the sea very much You can go out when you finished doing your homework. You can go out when you finished doing your homework.

6 Bu şekilde yaygın olarak kullanılan eylemler şunlardır: Admit Admit Anticipate Anticipate Appreciate Appreciate Avoid Avoid Can’t help Can’t help Can’t stand Can’t stand Complete Complete Delay Delay Deny Deny Detest Detest Practise Practise Recall Recall Recollect Recollect Remember Remember Resent Resent Resist Resist Understand Understand Dislike Dislike Enjoy Enjoy Excuse Excuse Finish Finish Keep Keep Mean Mean Mention Mention Mind Mind Miss Miss Postpone Postpone Risk Risk Stop Stop Suggest Suggest

7 Example: I appreciate being with friends. He avoided looking at me. I don’t recall meeting you before.

8 The possessive + Gerund Bir gerund ’un önünde iyelik sıfatı kullanılır. Bir gerund ’un önünde iyelik sıfatı kullanılır. I admit being guilty. I admit being guilty.

9 GERUND AS TEHE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION Bir preposition ‘dan sonra isim gelir. Bu nedenle bir preposition ‘dan sonra gelen fiil gerund biçimindedir. Bir preposition ‘dan sonra isim gelir. Bu nedenle bir preposition ‘dan sonra gelen fiil gerund biçimindedir. I am interested in watching television. I am interested in watching television.

10 Preposition ’ı “ to” alan yapılar Object to Object to Be accustomed to Be accustomed to Be used to Be used to Look forward to Look forward to Be opposed to Be opposed to In addition to In addition to

11 Example: I prefer tennis to basketball. I prefer tennis to basketball. I prefer playing tennis to playing basketball. I prefer playing tennis to playing basketball.

12 “Preposition+ Gerund Abstain from Abstain from Approve of Approve of Argued of Argued of Care about Care about Comment on Comment on Complains about Complains about Concentrate on Concentrate on Object to Object to Participate in Participate in Plan on Plan on Thinking about Thinking about Apologized for Apologized for Consist of Consist of Deal with Deal with Decided against Decided against Depends on Depends on Dreamed of Dreamed of Feel like Feel like Forget about Forget about Referred to Referred to Advantage of Advantage of Talked about Talked about

13 Verb+ object +preposition +gerund Accused the man of robbing Accused the man of robbing Apologized to me for being late Apologized to me for being late Arrested the guard for helping Arrested the guard for helping Blamed her for making Blamed her for making Complained the owner about hassling Complained the owner about hassling Congratulated him on being Congratulated him on being Deterred the climbers from going Deterred the climbers from going Devoted herself to bring in Devoted herself to bring in Discouraged her from entering Discouraged her from entering Forgive him for lying Forgive him for lying Kept me from studying Kept me from studying Prevented him from leaving Prevented him from leaving Punish him for stealing Punish him for stealing Stopped me from making Stopped me from making Suspected him of betraying Suspected him of betraying

14 Example: Don’t worry about my working so hard. Don’t worry about my working so hard. I was warned against smoking so hardly. I was warned against smoking so hardly. I am blamed by the customers for delaying orders. I am blamed by the customers for delaying orders.

15 Adjective +preposition+ gerund a) Pek çok sıfat bir preposition ile birlikte kullanılabilir ve bu preposition’ dan sonra bir isim yada gerund gelir.Sıfatlarla cümle kurarken yaygın olarak kullanabileceğimiz filler şunlardır: be, seem, appear, remain, look, become, get, feel. a) Pek çok sıfat bir preposition ile birlikte kullanılabilir ve bu preposition’ dan sonra bir isim yada gerund gelir.Sıfatlarla cümle kurarken yaygın olarak kullanabileceğimiz filler şunlardır: be, seem, appear, remain, look, become, get, feel.

16 b) Bu şekilde yaygın kullanılan sıfatlar şunlardır: Be accustomed to Be accustomed to Afraid of Afraid of Angry at Angry at Appropriate for Appropriate for Ashamed of Ashamed of Aware of Aware of Bored with Bored with Capable of Capable of Concerned about Concerned about Content with Content with Delight at Delight at Different from Different from Essential to Essential to Excellent at Excellent at Excited about Excited about Exposed to Exposed to famous for famous for Suitable for Suitable for Sure of Sure of Worried about Worried about Fed up with Fed up with Fond of Fond of Good at Good at Feel guilty for Feel guilty for Be guilty of Be guilty of Keen on Keen on Lazy about Lazy about Opposed to Opposed to Proud of Proud of Responsible for Responsible for Similar to Similar to Sorry about Sorry about Terrified of Terrified of Tired from Tired from Used to Used to Happy about Happy about

17 Your younger son seems very good at drawing. Your younger son seems very good at drawing. Are you interested in taking photographs? Are you interested in taking photographs? You are certainly capable of doing much better work. You are certainly capable of doing much better work.

18 c) Tired of bir şeyden bıkmak sıkılmak anlamına gelir tired from yorulmak anlamında kullanılır. I am tired of waiting for you. I am tired of waiting for you. I am tired from writing. I am tired from writing.

19 d) Good at kullanımına benzer şekilde bad at, hopeless gibi sözcüklerini de kullanabiliriz. d) Good at kullanımına benzer şekilde bad at, hopeless gibi sözcüklerini de kullanabiliriz. She is quick at writing compositions in English. She is quick at writing compositions in English.

20 e) Used to geçmişteki alışkanlıkları ifade ettiğimiz ”used to” kalıbı arsındaki ayrıma dikkat edilmeli. I used to smoke when I was 20 years old I used to smoke when I was 20 years old I am used to drinking water as soon as I get up early. I am used to drinking water as soon as I get up early.

21 Noun+ preposition+ gerund Bazı isimler kendilerinden sonra bir preposition+ gerund yapısıyla kullanılabilir. Bazı isimler kendilerinden sonra bir preposition+ gerund yapısıyla kullanılabilir.

22 Bu şekilde yaygın olarak kullanılan yapılar şunlardır: On account of On account of In case of In case of Difficulty in Difficulty in In charge of In charge of In danger of In danger of In exchange for In exchange for For fear of For fear of In spite of In spite of Technique for Technique for The point of The point of In the habit of In the habit of In return for In return for Instead of Instead of Interested in Interested in In the course of In the course of In the middle of In the middle of Need for Need for Reason for Reason for For the sake of For the sake of

23 EXPRESSIONS+GERUND It is no use It is no use There is no point in There is no point in It is worth It is worth A wast e of money/ time A wast e of money/ time Without doing Without doing By doing By doing Busy doing Busy doing Have a good time doing Have a good time doing Sit/ stand + gerund Sit/ stand + gerund

24 Bazı fiiller hem gerund hem infinitive alabilir.

25 Bu fiiller şunlardır: Stop vazgeçmek bırakmak anlamındaysa gerund gelir. Stop vazgeçmek bırakmak anlamındaysa gerund gelir. Try denemek anlamındaysa gerund gelir. Try denemek anlamındaysa gerund gelir. Go on devam etmek anlamındaysa gerund gelir. Go on devam etmek anlamındaysa gerund gelir. Remember hatırlamak anlamındaysa gerund gelir. Remember hatırlamak anlamındaysa gerund gelir.

26 Forget hatırlanması gereken bir şeyi unutmak anlamındaysa gerund alır. Forget hatırlanması gereken bir şeyi unutmak anlamındaysa gerund alır. Afraid sadece korkma duygusunu anlattığında of ve gerund alır. Afraid sadece korkma duygusunu anlattığında of ve gerund alır. Mean anlamına gelmek anlamındaysa gerund alır. Mean anlamına gelmek anlamındaysa gerund alır. Propose teklif etmek anlamındaysa gerund alır. Propose teklif etmek anlamındaysa gerund alır.

27 Like hate prefer love Like hate prefer love yalnız kullanıldığında gerund alır. Care umursamak anlamında gerund alır. yalnız kullanıldığında gerund alır. Care umursamak anlamında gerund alır. Advise allow permit ilgili şahıslarla bahsedilmişse gerund alır. Advise allow permit ilgili şahıslarla bahsedilmişse gerund alır.

28 Bazı fiiller hem gerund hem infinitive alır anlam farkı olmaz. Begin Begin Start Start Continue Continue Attempt Attempt Intend Intend

29 Verbs followed by a gerund or Infinitive : Need Need Require Require Want Want

30 Example: The car needs washing. The car needs washing. The car needs to be washed. The car needs to be washed. I need to iron my shirt. I need to iron my shirt. My shirt needs to be ironed. My shirt needs to be ironed.

31 THE PERFECT GERUND Yüklem ile gerund ‘ı gerçekleştirdikleri zaman açısından karşılaştırdığımızda eğer gerund önce gerçekleşmiş ise, simple gerund yerine perfect gerund kullanabiliriz. Yüklem ile gerund ‘ı gerçekleştirdikleri zaman açısından karşılaştırdığımızda eğer gerund önce gerçekleşmiş ise, simple gerund yerine perfect gerund kullanabiliriz.

32 Example: I appreciated your having helped me. I appreciated your having helped me. The headmaster denied having hit the child. The headmaster denied having hit the child. The thief admitted having stolen the money. The thief admitted having stolen the money.

33 THE PASSIVE GERUND Passive’ in temel kuralı be+ past participle olduğu için kendinden sonra gerund alan fiiller,passive yapıyı being done biçiminde alırlar. Passive’ in temel kuralı be+ past participle olduğu için kendinden sonra gerund alan fiiller,passive yapıyı being done biçiminde alırlar.

34 Example: I appreciated being invited to the party. I appreciated being invited to the party. I don’t enjoy being asked personal questions. I don’t enjoy being asked personal questions. I don’t recall being informed about the case. I don’t recall being informed about the case.


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