2aim How do we define sentences and clauses? What are subjects and predicates?What is a phrase?What types of phrases are there in Turkish?What are phrase structure rules?How are the following types of phrases organised?NPPPAPADVP and adverbialsVP
4In traditional grammar, Sentence is the complete expression of one thought.BUTKaya parçası = one thought, not a sentenceDün seninle sinemaya gitmek için geldim = one sentence, two thoughtsTHENConsider sentences in terms of clauses.Clauses are the syntactic units that have a subject and a predicate.Sentence= one or more clauses due to their recursive properties.Seni görmeye geldim = sentence with two clauses
5Immediate constituents of clauses: subjects and predicates [Ahmet] [sessizce uyudu][semra] [açık havada dolaştı][sarı saçlı kız] [okulu bitirdi]
6Substitution test for consistency kim ne yaptı? Constituent B is the subject of the sentenceConstituent C is the predicate of the sentencePredication: the relationship between the subject and the predicateAll sentences consist of a subject and a predicateA predicate is what remains in a sentence after the subject is excluded.Subjects and predicates are also sisters like complements and heads.
7subjects A simple subject is usually a NP Subjects in Turkish are usually the initial NP in a sentence with a tensed verb.Ünlü şarkıcı deniz kenarındaki lokantada balık yediDün satın aldığım kitap çok pahalıydıPronouns are also NPsBen, siz, o, onlar, bu, şu, etc
8The pro-drop parameter (the subj pronoun can be dropped, or not) Turkish can have null subjects (pro-drop language)languages such as English and French dont allow null subjects (non- pro drop languages)Küçük bebek sincabı gördü - NPO sincabı gördü - PronounSincabı gördü – null subjectDifferent discourse functions:Introduce a new person into the conversationShows the baby has been mentioned previouslyProvides the topic continuity
9It is strange to use overt subjects when the speaker continues to talk about the same entity Murat eve geldi, #Murat yemek pişirdi, # o yemek yedi, # O kitap okuduNull subjects are also considered to be NPs. Even if the subject is empty, the sentence still has a subject-predicate constituent structure. The null subject is represented with pro (an empty pronpun)
10Subject-verb agreement in sentences Turkish verbs have agreement suffixes: number and person.Number can be singular or pluralPerson can be first, second and third person.Ben çok çalışırım (first person singular)Siz çok çalışırsınız (second person plural)
11predicates Typically constituents that follow subjects in sentences. Express the action carried by the subject (arkadaşım yüzdü)Provide description of the subject (Ahmet yakışıklı bir subaydır)Show what happened to the subject (adam yere düştü)Express a psychological state experienced by the subject (Ahmet sevindi)Almost universally predicates contain verbs, they may contain other constiuents such as direct/indirect objects and adverbs.
13Phrases are the constituents which function as subjects, objects, etc in a sentence. A phrase may consist of one or more constituents with a syntactic significance.There are different types of phrases in languages such as NP, VP, ADJP, ADVP, PPThe category of the head determines the category of the phrase.NP – head NVP – head V
14Simple subjects are usually NPs and predicates are VPs since predicates have verbs as their central element.
15Phrase structure rule Phrases are rule-governed constituents. Phrase structure rules are intended to model mental representations of possible phrases in a language.S -> NP VPHuman beings store a limited number of rules to produce infinite number of phrases and sentences.
16Head parameterHead directionality: the direction of the head differs from one language to another.Turkish is a head final language while English is head initial.Dün satın aldığım kitap – NP- head kitapThe book that I bought yesterday – NP- head bookKitap okumak – VP- head okumakRead the book – VP- head readMakas ile – PP – head ileWith scissors – PP- head with
18NPs mostly function as subjects and objects in sentences A NP can consist of a single word, a noun or a pronoun or more than one word.The head of a NP is almost always inflected for case, ie. Nominative, accusative, genitive, possessive, etc.Ünlü şarkıcı deniz kenarındaki lokantada balık yediİki akıllı kız marul salatası yedilerDün satın aldığım kitap çok pahalıydıFurther examples:Filler, ev, boya, etc- common Nsİstanbul, Mersin, Aslı, etc- proper NsKırmızı kitap, en başarılı sanatçı, etc – modified by ADJPGelen adam, yeni aldığım kitap- consisting of Rel. Cl.Demir kapı, deri koltuk, etc – attributive NsBen, sen, o, bu, şu, etc - pronouns
19Pronouns can also stand for NPs Benim kitabım, Canın kalemi, Onların evleri, bir ev, iki kardeş, bütün yollar, etcThe above NPs consist of determiners. Determiners are function words, whose functions are to determine the referential and quantificational properties of nouns.Quantificational determiners: bazı, birkaç, her, bütün, etcReferential determiners: bu, şu, o, bunlar, benim, senin, etc.
20Turkish does not have a definite article but an indefinite article «bir», which is also a determiner Bir has two different meanings: 1. shows the number, 2. functions as a determinerBir güzel genç kız, iki güzel genç kız, etcGüzel bir genç kız, ?güzel iki genç kızA quantificational determiner and the indefinite article cannot occur in the same NP.3. * benim her akıllı bir öğrencim
21To sum up, a NP in Turkish may consist of the following types of constituents: The head (obligatory by definition)One or more adjective phrasesAn attributive nounOne or more relative clausesOne or more determinersThe phrase structure rule of NP in Turkish:NP > (referential det.) (rel.cl) (quantificational det.) (adj) (indefinite article) (noun) Noun[Det Ali’nin [RL dün yıkattığım] [ADJP güzel] [Head halısı]
22İyi bir konser salonu bulduk * iyi bir konser bulduk salonuPhrases are determined according to their function and position in a sentence.
24Adpositions are word classes that express a relationship between two entities such as place, time, location etc.Prepositions = adposition + NP (like in English)Postposition = NP + adposition (like in Turkish)Some Turkish postpositions such as ile can become clitics (Nerminle)Postpositions have complements that complete them:NP+gibi : bütün arkadaşları gibi* gibi çalışıyorPostpositions, like verbs, assign case to their complements (Table, pp )
27It is difficult to draw a line between adjectives and nouns in Turkish (as adjs takes case and plural endings as nouns)Kız (N)- kızlar, genç (ADJ)-gençler, kıza, gence, etc*daha kız, en kız (Ns not allowed in comparative, superlatives)Daha genç, en genç (table, pp 201)Kırmızı kitap (attributive adjective)Kitap kırmızıdır (predicative adjective)Adjectives as a head at finalÇok güzel, en kolay, yakın
28Adjs with NP complements [gitmeye gönüllü]*[gönüllü]Ahmet [annesine çok düşkün]* Ahmet [düşkün]Some ADJPs require PP complements[ADJP [PP Cana karşı] duyarlı][ADJP [PP seninle] mutlu]ADJP > (NP/PP) (Degree ADV) adj.