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1 Temel Bilgiler Genel Bakış Tolga ŞentekinMatris Bilişim Teknolojileri2011NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
2 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use İlk Bakışta...KatmanlarWAFL, NVRAM, RAID-DPDonanımPlatformlar, Disk Yapısı, Flash CacheYazılımData ONTAP, Standart Özellikler, Ek ÖzelliklerNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
3 NetApp Technolojileri NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
4 Foundation – NetApp Çekirdek Yapılar WAFLNVRAMRAID-DPNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
5 Data ONTAP Bileşenleri: WAFL VS “Geleneksel” Sistemler Geleneksel Dosya SistemleriDatanın disk üzerindeki yeriHerhangi BiryerDiskin Genelinde raid sisteminin belirlediği yerdeMetadataDisk üzerinde herhangi bir yerde (root inode Hariç)Belirli bölgelerdeVarolan data / metadata güncellemeBoş Bloklara yazılır (Orjinaller kalır)Varolan datanın üzerine yazılırDosya sistemi tutarlılığıTasarımın temelinde, bozulma yokTüm yazma işlemleri dikkatli yapılmalıdırPlanlanmamış felaketYeniden başladığı anda hazırYavaş açılma sistem kontrolü zorunluRAID ile uyumFull sektörlere blok yazabilmeDisk üzerinde update için aramaSnapshot kopyaları / versiyonlarıTasarımın temelindeextra copy on write işlemi gerektirirData ONTAP Components WAFL: WAFL vs. “Traditional” Filesystemsdata ontap components: WAFL versus “traditional” file systemsWAFL (Write Anywhere File Layout) is the NetApp file system. It is the file system layer of Data ONTAP, but what does the name WAFL mean? Sometimes potential new customers are confused about the meaning. Sometimes this confusion has been planted by NetApp competitors — an insidious sales technique sometimes known as FUD — fear, uncertainty and doubt. Sometimes competitors will suggest that WAFL does not protect data stored on disk because WAFL will store the data on disk just “anywhere.” However, that is actually not what WAFL means. In fact, it is just the opposite. The important point is that unlike the vast majority of file systems that require metadata to be recorded to a particular physical location on the disk, the WAFL file system is able to write metadata anywhere on the disk.From a performance point of view, WAFL attempts to avoid the disk head having to write data in one location and then having to move up to a special portion of the disk to update the inodes — the metadata — and then move back to write some more data, and move again to update inodes, and so on across the physical disk medium. Head seeks happen very fast, but on server class systems you have thousands of disk accesses going on per second. This adds up very quickly and will greatly impact the performance of the system, particularly on write operations. WAFL does not have that handicap, and writes the metadata in line with the rest of the data. Write anywhere refers to the file system’s capability to write any class of data at any location on the disk; in other words, it can choose where to put the data.The basic goal of WAFL is to write to the first best available location. First best available is always going to be a complete stripe across an entire RAID group that utilizes the least amount of head movement to access. That is arguably the most important criteria for choosing where WAFL is going to locate data on a disk. That is what the term “write anywhere” refers to, the location of the metadata.Data ONTAP has control over where everything goes on the disks, so it can decide the most optimal location for data and metadata. This fact has very significant ramifications for the way Data ONTAP does everything, but particularly in the operation of RAID and the operation of Snapshot technology.
6 NVRAM İşlemi Client Storage System Dual-attached FC GbE NVRAM operationnvram operationLooking at a basic setup of systems, we will step through the process that WAFL uses integrating the NVRAM into the system of reads and writes.
7 NVRAM Operation (Devam) ClientOperasyon pil destekli RAM üzerinde kontroller hatasından arınmış durumdaOperation aynı zamanda işlemlerin devamı için ana hafızadaStorage SystemOperationMain MemoryNICNICN V R A MMain Memoryack+BATT-NIC = Network Interface CardNVRAM operationnvram operation (cont.)Let’s take a close look at NVRAM and WAFL integration. The controller contains a special chunk of RAM called NVRAM. In this case, NV means nonvolatile. It is nonvolatile because it has a battery, so if something happens like a sudden disaster striking the system, the janitor tripping over the power cords, or whatever, the data stored in NVRAM is not lost.Once data gets to a NetApp storage system, it is treated in the exactly the same way whether it came through a SAN or NAS connection. As I/O requests come into the system, they first go to RAM. The RAM on a NetApp system is used as in any other system; it is where Data ONTAP does active processing. As the write requests come in, the operating system also logs them into NVRAM.NVRAM is logically divided into two halves so that as one half is emptying out, the incoming requests are filling up the other half. They are going back and forth on that system. As soon as WAFL fills up one half of NVRAM, then WAFL forces a consistency point, or CP, to happen and it writes the contents of that half of NVRAM to the storage media. A fully loaded system will be doing back-to-back CPs so it is filling and refilling both halves of the NVRAM.Upon receipt from the host, WAFL logs writes in NVRAM and immediately sends an ACK (acknowledgment) back to the host. At that point from the host’s perspective, the data has been written to storage. But in fact, the data may be temporarily held in NVRAM. The goal of WAFL is to write data in full stripes across the storage media. To do this, it holds write requests in NVRAM while it chooses the best location for the data, does RAID calculations, parity calculations, and gathers enough data to write a full stripe across the entire RAID group.
8 NVRAM Operation (Cont.) Clientİşlemler Ana Hafıza ÜzerindeStorage SystemOrganize edilmiş data disklere blok halinde yazılırNVRAM sıfırlanırMain MemoryNICNICN V R A MMain Memory+BATT-NVRAM operationnvram operation (cont.)WAFL will never hold data any longer than ten seconds before it establishes a CP. At least every 10 seconds, WAFL takes the contents of NVRAM and commits it to disk. As soon as a write request has been committed to a block on disk, WAFL clears it from the journal. On a system that is lightly loaded, an administrator can actually see the 10 second CPs happen; every ten seconds the lights cascade across the system. Most systems are running with a heavier load than that, and the CPs are happening every second, every four seconds, or every two seconds, depending on the system load.A question that frequently arises is, “is NVRAM a performance bottleneck?” No, it is not. The response time of RAM and NVRAM is measured in microseconds. Disk response times are always in milliseconds and it takes a few milliseconds for a disk to respond to an I/O. Disks are always the performance bottleneck of any storage system because disks are radically slower than any other component on the system such as CPU or RAM. When a system has gotten to the point that it is committing back-to-back CPs, the reason is because the disks are taking writes as fast as they possibly can. That is a platform limit for that system. If that platform limit is hit, then the option is to spread the traffic across more heads or upgrade the head to a system with greater capacity. That is a disk limitation; the disks are emptying NVRAM as quickly as possible. NVRAM could function faster if the disks could keep up.
9 NVRAM Sistem kapanmasında batarya ömrü “Planlı” Plansız” Haftarca 3-7 GünŞarj Durumuna GöreBlinking LEDMemoryNVRAM5Clustered Failover PortsTavor 4x (10 Gb/s) InfiniBand5.1Ah Battery (Dirty shutdown life –3-7 days)NVRAM benefits for both SAN and NAS environmentsnvram benefits for Both SAN and NAS EnvironmentsPeople often ask about battery life. If one does a dirty shutdown, that is, power off a running storage system without first halting it, the battery should last three to seven days. If the battery is partially discharged (less than 3.8 to 3.9 volts) such that it would not be able to keep NVRAM alive for three days, then Data ONTAP refuses to boot. It will charge the battery, and wait for it to get to a certain threshold before continuing. If one does a clean shutdown, the battery will last weeks or longer.The time it takes to charge the battery depends on how discharged it was. If it was fully discharged (< 3V), it takes approximately 10 hours to charge. If it is around the 3.8V threshold, that is, just low enough to keep the storage system from booting, it should be charged in about three to five hours, and Data ONTAP may allow the system to boot before then.Because its availability is critical to the uptime of the host controller, people often ask about Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). It is approximately two million hours. NVRAM6 is a bit different in that two versions are offered. The versions differ in memory size as well as battery count. The card uses a total of three or five battery cells, depending on whether it is 512 MB or 2 GB.Note that the state of each of these batteries is independently known and may be queried by way of sysconfig –a.NVRAM6512-MB/2-GB DIMM3-Cell BatteryIB CFO Connectors2-Cell Battery (Added into 2GB version only)FeatureNVRAM6NVRAM5Memory512MB/2GB DDR PC2700512MB DDR PC1600PCIPCI-Express x864b/133MHz PCI-X 1.0BatteryOne or two Li-Ion (5.9/9.8Ah)One Li-Ion 5.1AhPower25W20W
10 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use RAID 4Parite GüncellemePerformansÖlçeklenebilirlikYazmaZinciriRAID StripeParite SürücüsüNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
11 Performans & Süreklilik 312DDDDDPDP312397112151223128121132711Built into all NetApp storage arrays is a functionality called RAID-DP or RAID 6. This functionality, for the price of one additional disk drive provides 4000x more reliability than a traditional RAID 5 environment. RAID-DP protects against double disk failure, those crackles, hisses and jumps during a disk rebuild. Effectively the customer can have 2 disk fail at the same time and still carry on accessing data with minimal performance overhead.NetApp RAID-DPRAID 5’e Oranla 4,000x kat fazla korumaRAID 1+0 Oranla 75% verimli kapasiteminimal performance Düşüşü (~0 to 3%)Diğer RAID YapılarıRAID 5 1 den fazla disk koruması yapamazRAID 1+0 çok pahalı (2x disk)RAID 6 is Çok Yavaş (33% performans düşüşü)
12 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use NetApp DonanımlarıFAS-Series, SA-Series, V-SeriesNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
13 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use İş Sürekliliği“Active-Active KonfigurasyonAynı İki Kontrol Ünitesi8.0 Cluster-Mode ile 2’den FazlaKontrol Üniteleri birbirinden Bağımsız YönetilebilirNVRAM İçeriği InfiniBand ile birbirine MirrorTüm Diskler Her İki Kontrol Ünitesine BağlıHata anında çalışan kontrol ünitesi diğerinin işlerini anında devralır.NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
14 Current Disk Layer technologies, part 1 FC Disk ÜniteleriDS14 – 3U14DDS14mk4 FCFC diskler – ESH4 4GbpsDS14mk2 ATSATA diskler – AT-FCX 2GbpsLoop başına 6 Ünite (84 disks)FC/SATA farklı looplarda olmak zorundaNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
15 Current Disk Layer technologies, part 2 SAS ÜnitelerDS4243 – 4U24D, LFF, 3Gbps SASSAS diskSATA diskSSDDS2246 – 2U24D, SFF, 6Gbps SASStack Başına 10 ünite (240 disk)SAS/SATA karışık stack olabilirSSD kendi stack yapısı içinde olmalıNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
16 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use NetApp YazılımlarıNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
17 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use NetApp Yazılım AilesiTemel yazılımlarData ONTAPAggregate ve FlexVolSnapshotSnapRestoreFlexCloneDeduplicationEk YazılımlarSnapDriveSnapManagerSystem ManagerOperations Manager ve plug-in’leriNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
18 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use Data ONTAPOpenNetworkingTechnology forApplianceProductsData ONTAP®NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
19 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use ProtokollerTüm Platformlarda Data ONTAPTüm Platformlar;FCP ve FCoEiSCSICIFSNFSHTTP/SFTP, TFTP, SFTPNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
20 AutoSupport Olayları ASUP Raporlama ve bilgilendirme altyapısı: Haftalık LoglarSistemin olası problemlerine karşı proaktiv alarmlar ve önlemlerAşağıdakiler gerçekleşirse sistem yeniden başlarNVRAM batarya şarjı düşük veya boşDisk, fan, ve power supply hatalarıDisk Ünitesi HatalarıSistemin aşırı ısınmasıCluster HatalarıFile system Büyümesi gereğinden fazla iseSNMP HatalarıTo improve security, NetApp supports Transport Layer Security (TLS) via VeriSign 256-bit digital certificates for encryption and authentication between mail server gateways. TLS encrypts the AutoSupport content between your server and the NetApp servers. NetApp has also added VeriSign digital certificates to all our servers to provide strong authentication against "man-in-the-middle" attacks. Please have your administrators enable these features on your server. Many servers support TLS and certificate-based authentication, so it is just a matter of enabling these features on your servers.NetApp’s automated system processes all AutoSupport messages received. If an error is detected from a system not covered under a support agreement, and we have the current contact information, an automatic reply will be sent to the customer requesting that support coverage be renewed on the system. NetApp will not provide any RMA (return material authorization) or technical assistance unless the system has a valid support agreement.
21 Data ONTAP Storage Katmanı: Aggregate Aggregate — Bir ve Birden fazla Flexvol alanının çalışabilmesi için gerekli olan disk havuzudurAggregate Fiziksel bir katmandırAggregateRG 0RG 1AggregateRG 2Data ONTAP 7.0 storage terminology: aggregateWhat is an aggregate? An aggregate is a collection of disks. It can be multiple RAID groups or just one RAID group. It is a collection of physical disk space used as a container to support one or more volumes.An aggregate is the physical layer. When you create an aggregate, you do not have any usable space yet. There is still nothing for a host to connect to in an aggregate. Volumes must be created, either traditional or flexible, using the aggregate.
22 Data ONTAP 7.0 Storage Terminolojisi: Flexible Volume Flexible volume — Bir Aggregate içerisinde oluşturulan esnek veri depolama alanlarıdırFlexible volume aggregate bağımlı değildirFlexible volume mantıksal bir katmandır.AggregateFlexVol2RG 0FlexVol1FlexVol2RG 1FlexVol1Data ONTAP 7.0 Storage Terminology: Flexible VolumeFlexVol2RG 2Data ontap storage terminology: flexible volumeA Flexible volume is a collection of disk space allocated from the available space within the aggregate.FlexVol volumes are loosely tied to their aggregate and will be even more loosely tied in the future with the implementation of Data ONTAP GX functionality.Notice as the picture is showing, that both FlexVol volumes are striped across all of the disks of the aggregate. That is always true of a FlexVol volume no matter what the size. A FlexVol volume can be as small as 20 MB or as large as the entire aggregate, up to 16 terabytes in a current release of Data ONTAP.FlexVol1
23 Aggregate: 32-bit ve 64-bit 32-bit Aggregate 16TB maximum kapasitededir64-bit Aggregate teorik olarak 64ZB (Zettabyte = 1m PB) adresleyebilirGerçekte sistemin ram, işlemci yapısına göre sınırlandırılırModelMax 64-bit Aggr in 8.0FAS6080100 TBFAS604070 TBFAS3170FAS316050 TBFAS314040 TBFAS204030 TBNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
24 FlexVols™: I/O Performansını Arttırır Geleneksel Volume Yapısı:Volume performansı altındaki disk ve kafa sayısına bağlıdırVolume büyüdükçe disk hataları oluşurFlexVol:Aggregate içerisindeki tüm diskler kullanılırFlexvol boyutu önemli değildir.At the same time as increasing utilisation, customers will experience an increase in performance. Lets see how that works.When in a DAS each server has its own physical disks for the data, these disks spin at anywhere between 7,500 rpm and 15,000 rpm, most usually customers buy 10,000 rpm disks, so lets compare these.If we assume that a 10,000 rpm disk is capable of supplying the application 10Mb per second and we have 4 disks in the DAS based server. We can then assume we will get 40 Mb/s (excluding RAID overhead), to increase the performance more disks would need to be added, which could go against the physical storage requirements or the customer will face downtime while the data is transferred to quicker disks.With Aggregates and FlexVols, as we’ve seen, the data gets written across every disk in the aggregate regardless of the size of the FlexVol. So assuming we have 14 (one disk shelf), 7,500 rpm SATA disks, that can provide data to the server at a rate of 7.5 Mb/s we can see that the performance will increase. 7.5 Mb/s time 14 disks = 105 MB/s.Additionally if we wish to increase speed or grow the physical storage we can non-disruptively add disks to an aggregate and then the FlexVol automatically writes to the additional disks in the aggregate, therefore increasing performance and physical storage.
25 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use Snapshot TeknolojisiBir Çok yazılımın altyapısını oluştururDosya sisteminin anlık imajı’dırVolume tabanlıdır*Zamanlanmış, manuel veya uygulama entegreSıfır performans kaybıVolume başına 255 adetÜCRETSİZ Tüm DataONTAP sistemlerinde bulunur.*Metro Cluster yapılarında Aggregate tabanlı da çalışmaktadır.NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
26 Snapshot copy Kullanımı Snapshot kopyaları okunabilir.Read-only yapıdadırSecurity metadata’sı korunurSnapshot kopyasından tek dosya çıkartılabilirNAS ortamlarında kullanıma hazırdırSAN ortamlarında geri dönüş için admin yetkisi gereklidirSnaprestore ile tüm snapshotlar geri dönülebilir.NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
27 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use SnapRestoreBir volume’un tamamını bir snapshot noktasına döndürebilirPointer işlemleri ile çalışırAnında dönüş sağlarEkstra yer kaplamazSonraki snapshot kopyaları silinirZamanda geri giderseniz gittiğiniz zamandan sonraki işlemler kaybolurGenelde Full volume restore için kullanılır ama tek dosya da dönülebilirİnode sayısına göre geri dönme işlemi zaman alabilir.NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
28 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use FlexCloneYazılabilir bir Snapshot kopyasıdırSnapshot kopyasının bir kopyasını çıkartıp writable yaparBir snapshot kopyasından 255 clone çıkabilirOluşturulduğu snapshot kopyası clon silinene kadar silinemezSadece yazılacak farklar için delta alan yer kaplarClone snapshot kopyasından kopartılıp ayrı bir volume olabilir %100 yer kaplarNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
29 FlexClone – Nerelerde Kullanılır VeritabanıTest/Dev kopyaları yer kaplamadan oluşturulurBu kopyalar anında kullanıma hazırdır zaman kazandırırSanallaştırmaBirbirine benzer sanal makinalar anında ve yer kaplamadan oluşturulurBir snapshot kopyasına writable erişilmek istenen her durumda kullanılır.NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
30 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use TekilleştirmeBlok-Tabanlıdır. (4K)Bir FlexVol içerisindeki tüm blokları kapsarAggregate tabanlı değildirSadece volume içerisinde çalışırProtokol bağımsız çalışırBasitçe durdurulup kapatılabilir/açılabilirPerformansa etkisi çok azdır.NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
31 Tekilleştirme Limitleri (TB)* FASMax NormalMax w/ dedupeMax data size2020161172040319205021831404203160323170604060807.3.4 ve Üzeri / mode. OS için geçerlidir.NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
32 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use SıkıştırmaSadece versiyonundaYeni Lisans (Ücretsiz)Deduplication etkin ama çalışmayacak şekildeİşlemci bağımlı, çalışma performans etkisiTekilleştirme ile aynı limitlerdeOrtama göre tekilleştirme ile birlikte çalşabilir.NetApp Confidential – Limited Use
33 MetroCluster – 100 km Kadar Uzayabilir Şehirler Veya Bölgeler ArasıMetroCluster Tek bir datacenter’ın birden fazla bölgeye bölünebilmesiFAS3000, FAS3100, FAS6000V-SeriesKatlar, Binalar arası veya KampüsData Center İçindeMetroCluster – 100 km Kadar UzayabilirMetroCluster can address your continuous availability requirements, whether it is deployed inside a data center; (click for animation) at different locations in a building; (click for animation) or across city or metro-wide deployments up to a maximum distance of 100km. This enables a level of availability that goes beyond the high-availability features in a single array which makes MetroCluster a highly versatile solution.MetroCluster supports NetApp FAS3000, FAS3100, FAS6000 and V-Series.HA PairMetroCluster 500 m KadarNetApp Confidential - Limited Use
34 Tek Datacenter için MetroCluster Node 1Node 2Stretch MetroCluster500mCluster heartbeat is through InfiniBandUses the NVRAM cards EXCEPTX1926A card for 31xx series<= 500 m when using point-to-point connection*Fibre Channel cablingPatch panels reduce the distanceDisk shelvesSupports up to platform limit2Gb or 4GbATA supportedDisk ownership same as Fabric MetroCluster*Must use OM3 type cabling (or better) to achieve 500 mVolume XVolume YVolume Y MirrorVolume X MirrorData CenterNetApp Confidential – Limited Use
35 Şehir/Bölgeler Arası MetroCluster BinasıBBinasıFabric MetroClusterVolume XVolume Y Mirror<=100 kmVolume YVolume X MirrorDWDMDark FiberSPOF Yok– Tüm Parçalar ve Bağlantılar YedekliDedike Çoklu FC switchlerCluster Interconnect is VI over FC (versus SCSI)X1922A card for 3020, 3050X1926A card for 3040, 3070, 31xx, and 6xxxFibre Channel SwitchesDisk and controller interconnectCurrently using Brocade 300 and 5100, Licensed for full (multiswitch) fabricCustomer-supplied switches not supportedConfiguring for Long DistancesUp to 10 km - 4 “Long wave” SFPs (X1670A-R5)Greater than 10 km - 4 “Extended long wave” SFPs; Brocade certifiedExtended distance license required in order to set Buffer credits set accordinglyStorage ports can be2Gbps - 2 dual-port FC HBAs OR 4 onboard ports4Gbps - 4 onboard ports (3070, 6000 series)Quad-port FC HBAsDisk shelvesShelves on each loop must be same speed2 shelves per loop maximumATA shelves not supportedDepending on FAS model, ownership determined by software or hardware rulesAre attached to same ports on both switches (hardware ownership)NetApp Confidential - Limited Use
36 NetApp Confidential – Limited Use TeşekkürlerNetApp Confidential – Limited Use