4 Kuantum fiziğiMaddenin atom-altı öğeleri, ikili bir «görünüme» sahip soyut varlıklar gibiler. Örneğin biz bu varlıklara nasıl bakarsak, onlar da bize öyle görünmektedirler. Yani bazen onları bir parçacık ve bazen de bir dalga biçiminde algılamaktayız. Bu ikili özellik, normal «ışık»ta da gözlenebilmektedir:Parçacık DalgaYani ışık bazen bir elektromanyetik dalga özelliğine, bazen de bir parçacık özelliğine sahip olmaktadır.Yakın bir zamana kadar sinapsların yapısının sabit olduğu zannediliyordu. Sinapsın şeklinin, kimyasal habercilerin yapısına göre değiştiğinin ortaya çıkarılması Profesör Eric Kandel'e 2000 yılı Nobel Tıp Ödülü'nü kazandırmıştır.
12 EmbriyolojiYin organs belong to mesoderm, Yang organs belong to endoderm (Liv and Lu organs, include the Yin organs contain, but their origins are belong to endodermal layer. But, at this time, another important point should be noted, cartilaginous, muscular, and connective tissue components of the lungs are derived from splanchnic mesoderm surrounding the foregut. During further development for liver, parenchyma (liver cells = hepatocyte), hematopoietic cells, Kupfer cells, stellate cells, and connective tissue cells are derived from mesoderm.
14 Gelişimsel biyolojiLung and gut are two independent systems that originate from one common embryonic organ, the foregut. As told before, epithelial–mesenchymal interaction was here too.Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), a member of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of morphogens is expressed in the entire endodermal layer.Others transcription factors also show specific expression profiles in the endoderm, such as the SRY-related High-Mobility Group (HMG) transcription factors SOX2 (foregut endoderm) and SOX9 (midgut/hindgut endoderm)
15 FizikFurthermore, like heart, most internal organs show a distinct laterality with respect to the left-right (L/R) body axis as a result of asymmetric morphogenesis. L/R asymmetry depends on the evolutionarily conserved Nodal signaling pathway and other morphogenetic growth factors, including BMP, which is required for cardiac laterality. At the same time, human laterality, necessitate cell migrations. Directional fluid flow generated by motile cilia present in the node plays a fundamental role in LR determination. Meridians should be point to growth stage in the gastrulation period. And meridians should be represent the cell migrations road presumably
16 Piezoelektrik, Pyroelektrik, Ferroelektrik Zusanli (ST36) on the leg, cerebral regional homogeneity (ReHo) significantly increased, in left brainstem, the right cerebellum posterior lobe, right parahippocampal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left angular gyrus, temporal lobe and the left frontal lobe; and a significantly decreased ReHo in the occipital lobes and the right superior temporal gyrus was found. After application, measured the activity of natural killer cells in the spleen, gene expression in the hypothalamus, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes in the hypothalamus, liver and red blood cells. The EA treatment increased natural killer cell activity in the spleen by approximately 44%. It also induced genes related to pain, including 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 3a (Htr3a) and Endothelin receptor type B (Ednrb) in the hypothalamus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hypothalamus, liver, and red blood cells.
17 EpigenomiThese findings indicate that acupuncture effects through changes in cellular activity, gene expression, and enzymatic activity in multiple remote tissues. Five canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and fifty-three differential metabolites were identified, increased normal cell telomere, H3K9 acetylation seen.
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