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Techniques for Gene Expression Analysis Hüseyin Tombuloğlu.

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... konulu sunumlar: "Techniques for Gene Expression Analysis Hüseyin Tombuloğlu."— Sunum transkripti:

1 Techniques for Gene Expression Analysis Hüseyin Tombuloğlu

2 DD SSH Microarray Real-time PCR Deep Sequencing

3 Macroarray vs. microarray Allows only to detect 10 genes More then 10 genes,. The technique allows even genome-wide scale expression analysis Northern Blot RT PCR DD SSH Microarray Deep Sequencing

4 Microarray

5 “Determination of the CcpA dependent genes in A. thaliana R54W using cDNA microarray analysis” Determination of the effects of a point mutation

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8 Isolation of RNAs ( WT – Mutant ) Reverse Transcription Labeling with flour dyes HYBRIDIZASYON Cy3 (mutant) 560 nm Cy5 (wild type) 675 nm flour dyes used for labeling with cDNAs that hybridize their counterparts on the glass slide.

9 ArrayPro analysis scatter plot Computer analysis tecnique. Define the grids, subgrids and bad spot locations (fast analysis) Composite picture

10 MicroPrep MAIN FEATURES LOWESS normalization Merging of DNA microarray data from changing slide versions Outlier detection Slide qualility assessment Slide based steps –PrePreP identify the bad spots ( ignored or bad cells) –PreP normalization (only the control and target signals need to be identified) Experiment step –PostPreP modified analyses

11 Lowess Normalization (per grid) box data Before Lowess (grid) Lowess fitted data shows normal distrubition

12 We visualized the quantified signals for each slide on scatterplots. And selected the best ones to continue our experiment. X-axis;Cy5 Y-axis;Cy3

13 Normalization of microarray data is necessary for minimizing systemic errors. After normalization the data from replicate slides was merged.

14 MicroPrep can output the merged slide data in tables that can be used by CyberT. CyberT uses the standart T-satistic to determine relavant regulated genes.

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16 Visualization (genome2D)

17 R54W strain has inactive CcpA. about 163 genes are CcpA- dependent. 128 genes are subject to repression (up- regulated in mutant) 35 genes are subject to activation (down regulated in mutant)

18 Mikroarray advantage In a short time, genom-wide differences can be observed Disadvantage High cost Not applicable for any organism Chip-based technology

19 Coding region 5’ UTR3’ UTR UCG AAAAAAA n Coding region 5’ UTR3’ UTR UCG AAAAAAA n cDNA(s) Differential Display Genhunter Anchor Primer (3) Reverse transcribe mRNA

20 Coding region 5’ UTR3’ UTR UCG AAAAAAA n PCR Amplify cDNA(s) labeled dNTPs

21 Coding region 5’ UTR3’ UTR UCG AAAAAAA n PCR Amplify Anchor Primer (3) cDNA(s) labeled dNTPs

22 Coding region 5’ UTR3’ UTR UCG AAAAAAA n PCR Amplify Arbitrary Primers (80) cDNA(s) Anchor Primer (3) labeled dNTPs

23 Coding region 5’ UTR3’ UTR UCG AAAAAAA n PCR Amplifylabeled dNTPs cDNA(s) Arbitrary Primers (80) Anchor Primer (3) X Y Z

24 Coding region 5’ UTR3’ UTR UCG AAAAAAA n PCR Amplify Run on denaturing Polyacrylamide gel cDNA(s) Arbitrary Primers (80) Anchor Primer (3) labeled dNTPs X Y Z

25 Coding region 5’ UTR3’ UTR UCG AAAAAAA n PCR Amplify cDNA(s) Arbitrary Primers (80) Anchor Primer (3) labeled dNTPs Run on denaturing Polyacrylamide gel X Y Z

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27 Induced Constant

28 Induced Constant

29 Gel extract PCR amplify

30 Gel extract PCR amplify Vektöre Ligasyon, transformasyon…miniprep ve dizileme

31 Gel extract PCR amplify Sequencing and analyze Vektor Ligation, transformation

32 -Simple, gel based technology. - Easy to show the differentiated genes Disadvanteges - If there are a lot of proteins, it is hard to clone all the genes to the vectors and it is expensive. Advantages Differential Display-Farklılık Gösterim Tekniği Genhunter

33 Supressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH)

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35 RNA Sample RNA control Reverse transkripsiyon Supressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH)

36 cDNA RE cut Adaptor ligation Denaturation and mix the RNAs Supressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) RNA Örnek dokudan RNA Kontrol dokudan Reverse transkripsiyon

37 cDNA pool Supressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) cDNA Enzim kesimi Adaptör Ligasyonu Denaturasyon ve örneklerin karıştırılması RNA Örnek dokudan RNA Kontrol dokudan Reverse transkripsiyon

38 RNA from Control tissue. cDNA subtracted out- remove Supressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) cDNA Enzim kesimi Adaptör Ligasyonu Denaturasyon ve örneklerin karıştırılması RNA Örnek dokudan Reverse transkripsiyon

39 Amt PCR amplification, clonning, sequencing Supressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) RNA from Control tissue. cDNA subtracted out- çıkartılır cDNA Enzim kesimi Adaptör Ligasyonu Denaturasyon ve örneklerin karıştırılması RNA Örnek dokudan Reverse transkripsiyon

40 Advantage -In a short time, it is possible to obtain hundreds of clones. Supressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH)

41 Disadvantages - Junk sequences. - Expensive. Supressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH)

42 Real-time PCR Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction(qRT-PCR) Multiplex Real-Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (MRT-PCR) RT-qPCR

43 Real-time PCR advantages * not influenced by non-specific amplification * amplification can be monitored real-time * no post-PCR processing of products (high throughput, low contamination risk) * ultra-rapid cycling (30 minutes to 2 hours) * requirement of 1000-fold less RNA than conventional assays (3 picogram = one genome equivalent) * detection is capable down to a 2-fold change * confirmation of specific amplification by melting curve analysis * most specific, sensitive and reproducible * not much more expensive than conventional PCR (except equipment cost)

44 Real-time PCR disadvantages * not ideal for multiplexing * setting up requires high technical skill and support * high equipment cost * DNA contamination (in mRNA analysis)

45 Real-Time PCR Principles Three general methods for the quantitative assays: 1. Hydrolysis probes (TaqMan, Beacons) 2. Hybridization probes (Light Cycler) 3. DNA-binding agents (SYBR Green)

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49 Deep Sequencing

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51 Deep Sequencing Organizmanın tüm transkriptomu çıkarılabilmektedir Günde 1 trilyon baza kadar sekanslama düşük maliyetle yapılabilmektedir. Bir haftalık süreçte 1.3 Gb büyüklükte data elde edilebilmekte. Genomik dizinin yüksek güvenilirlikte olması için aynı dizi defalarca analiz edilir. Konvansiyonel sistemlere göre (kapiller sekanslama ve elektroforez) hata oranı daha azdır.

52 Three Major Players 454 Roche SOLiD Applied Biosystems Genome Analyzer Illumina

53 The Roche 454/GS FLX Sequencing Technology 1. Örnekler öncelikle rastgele b lık dizilere ayrılır

54 2.Pürifikasyon, amplifikasyon ve dizileme için gerekli adaptörler DNA parçalarının her iki yanına da eklenir. Eğer örnek çift zincirli ise bir zinciri uzaklaştırılır ve geriye kalan tek zincir ile devam edilir.

55 3.Adaptörler yardımı ile her bir ssDNA kendi özel boncuğu tarafından yakalanır. Boncuk ve bağlı fragment yağdaki su tanesi gibi davranış sergileyerek kendi içerisine kapanır ve bu sayede her bir fragment kendi içinde kontaminasyona uğramadan çoğalabilir. Bu etki emulsiyon etkisi: emPCR şeklinde adlandırılır.

56 4.emPCR her fragmenti milyon kez kopyalar. Amplifikasyon sonrası klonlar ortamdan arındırılır ve boncuklarla birlikte fiber- optic PicoTiterDevice cihazına dizileme için konulur..

57 5.The PicoTiterPlate her bir kuyuya bir boncuklu fragment alacak şekilde yerleştirilir.

58 6.Sequencing is accomplished by synthesizing the complementary strands of the bead attached templates. In a number of cycles the four bases (ATGC) are sequentially washed over the PicoTiterPlate. The incorporation of a new base is associated with the release of inorganic pyrophosphate starting a chemical cascade. This results in the generation of a light signal which is captured by a CCD camera. The released PPi is converted to ATP with adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) and ATP sulfurylase. The ATP is used by luciferase in the metabolism of luciferin, which emits photons.

59 Kaynaklar 07Workshop/lectures/Lecture%204.pdfhttp://www.cals.arizona.edu/microarray/Jan 07Workshop/lectures/Lecture%204.pdf Craig Tomlinson. DNA Deep Sequencing, PEMM Biostatistics, 2009 M. Tevfik DORAK, MD PhD, Real-Time PCR. 2010


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