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Prof.Dr.Selma KARABEY FOOD SANITATION AND RELATED REGULATIONS.

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1 Prof.Dr.Selma KARABEY FOOD SANITATION AND RELATED REGULATIONS

2 om/gida-zehirlenmesi- suphesiyle- hastanelere haberi /

3 Food Safety Food safety refers to whether food is safe for human consumption and hence lacking in biological and chemical contaminations that have the potential to cause illness. The improvements in public health virtually eradicated primarily food-borne infections that were until recently associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The common food-borne diseases currently encountered are usually are associated with self-limiting gastroenteritis. There have been several food-borne epidemics in developed world that have raised concerns about food safety in recent years.

4 Diseases related to Contamination with micoorganism Disease groupDisease Contamination with microorganism infections food poisoning parasitic diseases Streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Cholera, Listeria, Norwalk virüs diarrhea, Enteric adenovirüs, Parvovirüs, Rotavirüs, Viral Hepatitis, Brucella, Diphtheria, Tuberculosis, Tularemia, E.Coli diarrhea, Yersinia Staphylococcus, Clostridium, V.Parahemoliticus, Bacillus cereus. Worms, tapeworms Toxins, secretions Some plant and fungi species are poisonous;seafood(mussels),aflatoxins, lectins, mycotoxins Allergies Chemical pollens, secretions Chemicals Arsenic, antimony, cadmium, chlorinated hydrocarbons, Copper, Lead, Mercury, organic phosphorus compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, food containers materials (PVC, acrylonitrile)

5 Bacterial agents causing food-borne disease Agent incubation time Signs Salmonella species hoursNausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Associated findings can be seen as a headache and fever. Signs may take 1-4 days. Shigella species (S.dysenteriae, S.flexneri, S. Boydii, S. Sonnei) 1-7 days(usually less than 4 days) The most prominent symptom is diarrhea (mild- moderate violence, bloody diarrhea, severe diarrhea may be so different tables) fever, chills, vomiting may occur. Signs can take up to 4 days to 2 weeks Vibrio species 2-48 hours (mean 12 hours) Abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, usually nausea and vomiting, mild fever, headache, fatigue. Signs can take 2-5 days. E.coli Incubation time varies depending subtype, 6 sub-species is presentEPEC,DAEC,EA EC,EIEC ―8-24 hours, usually 11 hours, ETEC―8-44 hours, mean 26 hours Symptoms similar to Shigella species, bloody diarrhea may also occur. In some species may occur cholera-like diarrheal severe table.

6 Agentincubation timeSigns Yersinia species24 hours up to several days Abdominal pain (may be confused with acute appendicitis), fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and chills Signs may take longer, they may continue for a week or to several months. Campylobacter species 1-10 days(3-5 days) Fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, bloody diarrhea and headache. Repetition frequently Listeria sppecies 1 day up to several weeks Mild fever, chills, headache and diarrhea. In severe cases, septicemia, meningitis, encephalitis, and abortions may occur. Clostridium perfringes 8-24 hoursAbdominal pain, diarrhea and gas. the main symptoms are diarrhea style explosion fever, nausea and vomiting rare. Symptoms continue hours.

7 Salmonella enteritidis epidemic: One of the most common and widely distributed foodborne diseases Caused by the bacteria salmonella. Tens of millions of human cases occur worldwide every year The disease results in more than hundred thousand deaths. Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium; transmitted from animals to humans in most parts of the world.

8 Salmonella enteritidis epidemic-2: Sources and transmission Salmonella bacteria are widely distributed in domestic and wild animals.  in food animals such as poultry, pigs, cattle  in pets, including cats and dogs, birds and reptiles- turtles. Salmonellosis in humans is through the consumption of contaminated food  animal origin (mainly eggs, meat, poultry and milk)  although other foods, including green vegetables contaminated by manure, Person-to-person transmission through the faecal-oral route can also occur.

9 Infectious Hepatitis Hepatitis A virus Having an incubation period of days, mean of 4 weeks. Foods handled by an infected worker or those that come in contact with human feces are likely vehicles raw shellfish, salads, sandwiches, fruits Filter-feeding mollusks concentrate virus particles from polluted waters. Control is achieved by cooking food, stressing personal hygiene, and by avoiding shellfish harvested from pollueted waters.

10 Parasites Nematodes linked to food-borne illness in human include Trichinella Spiralis, Ascaris Lumbrocoides, Trichuris Trichiura, Enterobius Vermicularis, Anisakis spp. Pseudoterranova spp. Foods linked to the disease are raw or undercooked pork and wild game meat―beaver, bear and boar.

11 Parasites-2 Cestoda are common in developing countries, e.g. Taenei solium, Taenia saginata Diphyllobothrium latum. Protozoa ; Entamoeba histolytica, Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum Giardi lamblia cause dysentery-like illness that can be fatal.

12 Food-Borne Bacterial Intoxications Caused by a toxin in the food or production of a toxin in the intestinal tract. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin ―suspect foods are those rich in nutrients, high in salt, and dose are handled, ham, salami, cream-filled pastries, cooked poultry

13 Food-Borne Bacterial Intoxications-2 Bacillus sereus enterotoxin― this syndrome is commonly linked to consumption of fried rice in Oriental restaurants mashed potatoes pasta. Botulism ―home-canned foods, primarly low-acid vegetables, preserved meats, and fish, cooked onions, and leftover baked potatoes.

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15 Chemical Intoxications Chemicals are divided into two primary categories: prohibited substances unavoidable poisonous or deleterious substances. Unavoidable poisonous or deleterious substances have FDA tolerance levels or action levels, in the event that exposure or introduction is unavoidable. Products that fall into these categories include pesticides, herbicides, growth hormones and antibiotics, additives and processing aids, lubricants, paints, cleaners.

16 Histamine and other biogenic amines Scombroid fish poisoning "histamine poisoning" is caused by ingestion of certain species of marine fish that contain high levels of histamine. These fish species contain high levels of free histidine in their tissue, When such fish are subjected to temperature abuse after harvest, bacteria decarboxylate histidine to produce histamine. Morganella morganii and Proteus spp. are particularly strong histamine producers.

17 Bisphenol A Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, also used in food contact materials, leading to potential consumer exposure through food. For the exposure scenario, which is for adults coffee, tea and alcoholic drinks packaged foods and beverages, The major sources of exposure in infants are migration of BPA from PC bottles (81%) and infant liquid formula packaged in PC containers or metal cans with epoxy linings (19%). Migration of BPA from epoxy resin in contact with powdered milk formula contributes approximately 1% to exposure.

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19 Acrylamide It is a chemical that is used to make polyacrylamide materials. Polyacrylamide is used in the treatment of drinking-water and waste water to make glues, paper and cosmetics used in the construction of dam foundations and tunnels, appears to be produced in some foods prepared at high temperatures Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in animals. Also, certain doses of acrylamide are toxic to the nervous system of both animals and humans

20 Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) The most commonly encountered POPs are ;  organochlorine pesticides, such as (DDT)  industrial chemicals, polychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCB),  polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)  dibenzofurans (PCDF), commonly known as 'dioxins'. Humans are exposed to these chemicals in a variety of ways:  mainly through the food we eat,  through the air we breathe,  in the outdoors, indoors  at the workplace

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24 Guidelines for Food Safety and Good Sanitation Practices 1) Maintain Proper Temperature for food items: Cooling and cold holding for refrigerated food should be held at or below 41º F.(≈ 5⁰ C) Hot holding for cooked foods must be a minimum temperature of 135º F. (≈ 57 ⁰ C) Reheating leftovers must be achieved at a minimum temperature of 165º F. (≈ 74⁰ C) 2) Preparing food too far ahead of service: Food prepared 12 or more hours before service increases risk of temperature abuse. Foods and food products must come from approved sources- not prepared at home or in unlicensed locations.

25 Guidelines for Food Safety and Good Sanitation Practices-2 3) Poor personal hygiene and infected personnel: Personal cleanliness and hand washing is very pertinent when handling food. Ensure that the facility has a properly working hand sink with soap and single-use paper towels. Other hand washing methods may be approved by the health authority for temporary operations. Wash your hands frequently, especially before you begin work and after performing any of these activities: using the toilet, handling raw food, coughing or sneezing, smoking, handling soiled items and disposing garbage.

26 Guidelines for Food Safety and Good Sanitation Practices-3 4)Serving raw foods and ingredients: Ensure that raw products are fresh and wholesome. Otherwise should not be served because they may cause food- borne disease. It is always safer to use pasteurized products. 5)Food Protection: Be careful to protect food products at all times from contamination by keeping them covered or packaged above ground or off the floor. Eliminate unnecessary food handling and protect all foods from physical contamination such as sneezing, coughing, touching dirty surfaces or containers.

27 Guidelines for Food Safety and Good Sanitation Practices-4 6)Water Supply: When food is prepared on the site, a system capable of producing enough hot water for frequent hand washing and cleaning and sanitizing utensils and equipment shall be provided on premises. Only potable water should be used either from a municipal source, a regulated community well, a private well that has been tested to ensure it is free from contamination, or from sealed containers approved by a bottling manufacturer meeting state/federal guidelines.

28 Guidelines for Food Safety and Good Sanitation Practices-5 7)Sewage: All sewage, including liquid waste, should be properly disposed of by a public sewage system or by a sewage disposal system constructed and operated according to local plumbing codes. 8)Garbage and Refuse : Must be kept in durable, easily cleanable, insect and rodent-proof containers that do not leak and do not absorb liquids. 9)Transportation: If food needs to be transported from one location to another, keep it well covered and provide adequate temperature controls.

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31 Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points (HACCP) HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards based on the following seven principles: Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis. Principle 2: Determine the critical control points (CCPs). Principle 3: Establish critical limits. Principle 4: Establish monitoring procedures. Principle 5: Establish corrective actions. Principle 6: Establish verification procedures. Principle 7: Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures.

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34 Sağlıklı Gıda Üretimi İçin Şartları ISO Gıda Güvenliği Yönetim Sistemi 4 Gıda güvenliği yönetim sistemi Gene şartlar Dokümantasyon şartları Yönetim sorumluluğu Yönetimin taahhüdü Gıda güvenliği politikası Gıda güvenliği yönetim sisteminin planlanması Sorumluluk ve yetki Gıda güvenliği ekip lideri İletişim Acil durumlara hazırlılık ve müdahale Yönetimin gözden geçirmesi Kaynak yönetimi Kaynakların sağlanması İnsan kaynakları Alt yapı Çalışma ortamı

35 Sağlıklı Gıda Üretimi İçin Şartları ISO Gıda Güvenliği Yönetim Sistemi 7 Güvenli ürün planlama ve gerçekleştirme Genel Ön gereksinim programları Tehlike analizlerini gerçekleştirmenin birincil aşamaları Tehlike analizi Operasyonel ön gereksinim programlarının oluşturulması HACCP planının oluşturulması OGP ve HACCP planlarında belirtilen başlangıç bilgi ve dokümanların güncelleştirilmesi Doğrulama planlaması İzlenebilirlik sistemi Uygunsuzluk kontrolü Gıda güvenliği yönetim sisteminin geçerli kılınması, doğrulanması ve iyileştirilmesi158.1 Genel …… Kontrol önlem kombinasyonlarının geçerli kılınması …… İzleme ve ölçmeni kontrolü …………… Gıda güvenliği yönetim sisteminin doğrulanması ……………… İyileştirme

36 Güvenli ürün planlama ve gerçekleştirme HACCP planının oluşturulması HACCP planı Saptanan her bir kritik kontrol noktası (KKN) için HACCP planı yazılı hale getirilmeli ve aşağıdaki bilgileri içermelidir; a) KKN da kontrol edilen gıda güvenliği tehlikesi/tehlikeleri (Madde 7.4.4), b) Kontrol önlemi/önlemleri (Madde 7.4.4), c) Kritik limit/limitleri (Madde 7.6.3), d) İzleme prosedürü/prosedürleri (Madde 7.6.4), e) Kritik limitlerin aşılması hâlinde uygulanacak düzeltici faaliyet/faaliyetler (Madde 7.6.5), f) Sorumluluk ve yetkiler, g) İzleme kayıt/kayıtları,

37 TS HACCP : Gıda Güvenliği Yönetim Sistemi. (Tehlike Analizi ve Kritik Kontrol Noktaları ) HACCP konusundaki temel çalışmalar, 1959’da NASA’nın uzay programları için sağladığı gıdalardaki uygulamalarla başlamıştır. NASA bu çalışma ile uzaya astronotlarla birlikte yolladığı gıdaların % 100 güvenliğini sağlamayı amaçlamıştır. Gıda endüstrisinde HACCP uygulamaları 1993’te AB ülkelerinin yasalarına girmiş ve 1996’dan başlayarak zorunlu kılınmıştır. Türk gıda sanayisinde HACCP uygulamalarına, 1997’de yürürlük alan Türk Kıda Kodeksi ile zorunluk getirilmiştir.

38 TS HACCP : Gıda Güvenliği Yönetim Sistemi. (Tehlike Analizi ve Kritik Kontrol Noktaları) HACCP ilk kez, 1971’de uzaya gidecek astronotların gıdalarında mikrobiyolojik güvenliği sağlamak amacı ile Pillsburry firması ile NASA’nın işbirliği yapması ile uygulandı. Ardından 1988’de ICMSF (International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods Gıdalar için Mikrobiyolojik Özellikleri Uluslararası KOMİSİYON) tarafından, 1992’de NACMCF (National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods Gıdalar için Mikrobiyolojik Kriterler Üzerine Ulusal Danışma KURULU) tarafından, 1993’te de Codex Alimentarius Commission tarafından kabul edildi.

39 HACCP Sistemi ( Hazardous Action Critical Control Points) HACCP sistemi, gıda zincirini hammadde üreticisinden tüketime dek kapsayan, her türlü olası tehlikenin önceden değerlendirilerek gerekli önlemlerinin alınmasıyla risklerin en aza indirildiği pro-aktif (öngelen) bir “ risk yönetim ” sistemidir. Başarılı bir HACCP uygulaması, üst yönetimden başlayarak her aşamada çalışan tüm personelin bu sistemi benimsemesi ve disiplinli bir ‘takım’ (ekip) çalışmasıyla sorumluluklarını sürekli olarak yerine getirmesini gerektirir.

40 HACCP Sistemi HACCP; İşlevleri birbirine bağımlı olan, birbirini etkileyen ve birbirinden etkilenen, Kendine özgü kurulu düzenekleri bulunan, İzlenebilen, denetlenen Örgütlü (Organize) ağ yapılarından oluşmaktadır. Gıda üreten işletmelerde daha kuruluş aşamasında yerleştirilmiş olması gereken GHP (İyi Hijyen Uygulamaları), SSOP (Standart Sanitasyon Operasyon Prosedürleri) ve GMP (İyi Üretim Uygulamaları) gibi öngereksinim programları ise, HACCP sitemi için, hem etkilendiği, hem etkilediği, sürekli etkileşime (interaksiyona) girdiği, altyapı niteliğinde vazgeçilemez önkoşullardır.

41 Food legislation in Turkey Until 1995, our country conducts food service, there were many organizations. 1.Ministry of Health 2.Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs 3.Ministry of Industry and Trade 4.Ministry of the Interior 5.Ministry of Finance and Customs 6.Ministry of Justice 7.Undersecretariat of Foreign Trade 8.Turkish Standards Institute

42 Food legislation in Turkey-2 Pursuant to ― (28 Haziran 1995) -“Gıdaların Üretimi, Tüketimi ve Denetlenmesine Dair” 560 sayılı Kanun Hükmünde Kararname ve bu Kararnamede değişiklik yapan (7 Kasım 1995) sayılı Kanun ―, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs began to be fulfilled jointly by. In order to ensure the collection of all powers in one hand, the law ― 5179 sayılı “Gıdaların Üretimi, Tüketimi ve Denetlenmesine Dair Kanun Hükmünde Kararnamenin Değiştirilerek Kabulü Hakkında Kanun” ― has been adopted by our legislative body by Parliament (TBMM), on 5 June 2004 and it was published in Official Gazette No Finaly ― 5179 Sayılı Gıdaların Üretimi Tüketimi ve Denetlenmesine Dair Kanun Hükmünde Kararnamenin Değiştirilerek Kabulü Hakkında Kanun ― enacted in Parliament on and entered into force on , by being published in the Official Gazette No

43 Regulations in Turkey Bitkisel Gıda ve Yemin İhracatında Sağlık Sertifikası Düzenlenmesi ve İhracattan Geri Dönen Ürünler İçin Uygulama Yönetmeliği Bitkisel Gıda ve Yemin İhracatında Sağlık Sertifikası Düzenlenmesi ve İhracattan Geri Dönen Ürünler İçin Uygulama Yönetmeliği Gıda Güvenliği ve Kalitesinin Denetimi ve Kontrolüne Dair Yönetmelik Gıda Güvenliği ve Kalitesinin Denetimi ve Kontrolüne Dair Yönetmelik Gıdaların Üretimi Tüketimi ve Denetlenmesine Dair Yönetmelik Gıda Üretim ve Satış Yerleri Hakkında Yönetmelik Gıda ve Gıda ile Temasta Bulunan Madde ve Malzemelerin Piyasa Gözetimi, Kontrolü ve Denetimi ile İşyeri Sorumluluklarına Dair YönetmelikGıda ve Gıda ile Temasta Bulunan Madde ve Malzemelerin Piyasa Gözetimi, Kontrolü ve Denetimi ile İşyeri Sorumluluklarına Dair Yönetmelik Gıda ve Gıda ile Temas Eden Madde ve Malzemeleri Üreten İş Yerlerinin Çalışma İzni ve Gıda Sicili Ve Üretim İzni İşlemleri İle Sorumlu Yönetici İstihdamı Hakkında Yönetmelik Gıda ve Gıda ile Temas Eden Madde ve Malzemeleri Üreten İş Yerlerinin Çalışma İzni ve Gıda Sicili Ve Üretim İzni İşlemleri İle Sorumlu Yönetici İstihdamı Hakkında Yönetmelik Çalışma İzni ve Gıda Sicili, Üretim izni Hakkında Yönetmelik

44 Safe Food Healthy Lifestyle Campaign 2009 was declared as the year of food. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, was campaigning with the slogan 'Reliable food and wellness' for all the year. During the campaign, "174 Food Line " was created 24 hours seven days, in relation to food and food contact materials of all kinds from the denunciations, complaints will be evaluated and will be solved

45 Gıda Satış Yerleri İçin İyi Hijyen Uygulamaları Rehberi Et ve Et Mamulleri Satan Küçük İş Yerleri İçin İyi Hijyen Uygulamaları Rehberi Fırıncılık ve Pastane Mamulleri Üretimi İçin İyi Hijyen Uygulamaları Rehberi

46 Toplu Tüketim Yerleri İçin İyi Hijyen Uygulamaları Rehberi Sakatat Hazırlayan, Satan, Depolayan ve Dağıtımını Yapan İşyerleri İçin İyi Hijyen Uygulamaları Rehberi

47 References Maxcy-Rosenau-Last,Public Health and Preventive Medicine,Ensuring Food Safety, Robert B.Wallace, Neal Kohatsu, 2008 Oxford Textbook of Public Health, Food and Nutrition, Roger Detels, Robert Beaglehole, Mary Ann Lansang, Martin Gulliford, Oxford Univercity Press, 2009 Çevre Sağlığı, Besin Kirliliği ve Önlenmesi, Prof.Dr.Çağatay GÜLER, 2012 Halk Sağlığı Temel Bilgiler, Toplum Beslenmesi, Prof.Dr.Çağatay Güler, Prof.Dr.Levent Akın, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Yayınları 2012 Prof. Dr. A. Saltık, Ders notları, AÜTF Halk Sağlığı A.D

48 Web Sources Central for Disease Control and Prevention er/ (last access date: ) er/ Food Safety for Moms-To-Be: While You're Pregnant - Listeria isk/ucm htm (last access date: ) isk/ucm htm Guidelines for Food Safety and Good Sanitation Practices service/guidelines-for-food-safety-and-good-sanitation.aspx (last access date: ) service/guidelines-for-food-safety-and-good-sanitation.aspx Chemical Hazards (last access date: ) Food Safety: 20 questions on genetically modified foods n/ (last access date: ) n/


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