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© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.1 Computer Networks and Internets, 5e By Douglas E. Comer Lecture PowerPoints.

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1 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.1 Computer Networks and Internets, 5e By Douglas E. Comer Lecture PowerPoints By Lami Kaya,

2 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.2 Chapter 15 Wired LAN Technology (Ethernet and 802.3)

3 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.3 Topics Covered 15.1 Introduction 15.2 The Venerable Ethernet 15.3 Ethernet Frame Format 15.4 Ethernet Type Field and Demultiplexing 15.5 IEEE's Version of Ethernet (802.3) 15.6 LAN Connections and Network Interface Cards 15.7 Ethernet Evolution and Thicknet Wiring 15.8 Thinnet Ethernet Wiring 15.9 Twisted Pair Ethernet Wiring and Hubs Physical and Logical Ethernet Topology Wiring in an Office Building Variants of Twisted Pair Ethernet and Speeds Twisted Pair Connectors and Cables

4 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Introduction This chapter –continues the discussion of LANs by focusing on wired LAN technologies –explains how concepts from previous chapters form the basis of Ethernet –shows the wired LAN technology that has proceeded to dominate all others

5 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved The Venerable Ethernet Although the hardware devices, cabling, and media used with Ethernet have changed dramatically –many of the fundamentals remain constant One of the most interesting aspects of Ethernet evolution concerns the way newer versions of Ethernet remain backward compatible –a new version can sense an older form and automatically adapt to accommodate the older technology

6 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved The Venerable Ethernet Ethernet ile kullanılan iletişim araçları, kablolar ve donanım araçlarına rağmen, drametik bir şekilde değişir. –Pek çok temel kısım sabit kalmıştır Ethernet gelişimi ile ilgili en önemli görüş, ethernetin yeni versiyonlarının backward compatible (geçmişle bağdaşır) olmasıyla ilgilidir –Yeni versiyon eski versiyon formlarını algılayabilir ve eski teknolojileri temin etmek için otomatik adaptasyon gerçekleştirebilir.

7 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Ethernet Frame Format The term frame format refers to the way a packet is organized –including details such as the size and meaning of individual fields The main reason that older versions of Ethernet have remained compatible with newer versions –arises from the frame format, which has remained constant since the DIX standard was created in the 1970s

8 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Ethernet Frame Format frame format terimi bir paketin nasıl organize edileceğini ifade eder. –Bireysel alanların anlamı ve boyut detaylarını içerir Ethernetin eski versiyonlarının, yeni versiyonlar ile uyumlu kalmasının ana sebebi –Frame format dan ileri gelir, 1970 lerde geliştirilen DIX standartının sabit kalması

9 15.3 Ethernet Frame Format Figure 15.1 (below) illustrates the basic format and the details of the frame header As the figure shows –an Ethernet frame consists of a fixed-length header –a variable-length payload, and a fixed-length CRC © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.9

10 15.3 Ethernet Frame Format Figure 15.1 (aşağıda) frame başlıklarının detayları ve basit formatını gösterir Figürün gösterdiği gibi –Sabit uzunluktaki başlıklardan oluşur –Değişken uzunlukta veri yükü ve sabit uzunlukta CRC © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.10

11 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Ethernet Type Field and Demultiplexing The type field in an Ethernet frame provides multiplexing and demultiplexing –that allows a given computer to have multiple protocols operating simultaneously The protocols used on the Internet send IP datagrams and ARP messages over Ethernet –Each is assigned a unique Ethernet type (hexadecimal 0800 for IP datagrams and hexadecimal 0806 for ARP messages) –When transmitting a datagram in an Ethernet frame, the sender assigns a type 0800 When a frame arrives at its destination –the receiver examines the type field, and it uses the value to determine which software module should process the frame Figure 15.2 illustrates the demultiplexing

12 15.4 Ethernet Type Field and Demultiplexing © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.12

13 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved IEEE's Version of Ethernet (802.3) IEEE developed a standard for Ethernet (1983) and attempted to redefine the Ethernet frame format The IEEE working group that produced the standard is numbered –professionals often refer to it as Ethernet The major difference between conventional Ethernet and Ethernet arises from the interpretation of the type field –The standard interprets the original type field as a packet length, and adds 8-byte header that contains the packet type –The extra header is known as a Logical Link Control / Sub-Network Attachment Point (LLC/SNAP) header; most professionals simply call it a SNAP header Figure 15.3 illustrates the format

14 15.5 IEEE's Version of Ethernet (802.3) © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.14

15 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved IEEE's Version of Ethernet (802.3) The overall frame size in Ethernet remains the same as conventional Ethernet: 1514 bytes –IEEE reduced the maximum payload from 1500 bytes to 1492 bytes –SNAP header occupies the first 8 bytes of the payload To keep the two versions of Ethernet compatible, a convention is used: –If bytes of a frame contain a numeric value less than 1500 the field is interpreted as a packet length and the standard applies –otherwise, the field is interpreted as a type field and the original Ethernet standard applies

16 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved LAN Connections and Network Interface Cards NIC appears to be an I/O device –it is connected in the same manner as a disk or video device A NIC handles –address recognition –CRC computation –frame recognition –sending/receiving frames A NIC consists of a circuit board with a plug on one side. Most computers come with a NIC already installed The NIC is independent from the rest of the computer –and a user can choose to replace the NIC without making other changes

17 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved LAN bağlantıları ve Ağ Arayüz Kartları NIC, I/O aracı olarak görülür –Bir disk veya video aracı ile aynı şekilde bağlantısı sağlanır NIC handles –Adres tanımlama –CRC hesaplama –frame recognition (tanımlama) –sending/receiving frames NIC devre kartı dan oluşur. Pek çok bilgisayar NIC ile birlikte gelir. NIC bilgisayarın geri kalan kısmından bağımsızdır. –Ve bir kullanıcı herhangi değişiklik yapmadan NIC değiştirebilir

18 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Ethernet Evolution and Thicknet Wiring Ethernet has undergone several major changes –with the most significant changes in media and wiring The original Ethernet wiring scheme was informally called thick wire Ethernet or Thicknet –because the medium consisted of a heavy coaxial cable –the formal term for the wiring is 10Base5 Hardware used with Thicknet was divided into two major parts –A NIC handled the digital aspects of communication –A separate electronic device called a transceiver connected to the Ethernet cable It handles carrier detection, conversion of bits into appropriate voltages for transmission, and conversion of incoming signals to bits

19 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Ethernet Evolution and Thicknet Wiring A physical cable known as an Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) connected a transceiver to a NIC in a computer A transceiver was usually remote from a computer For example, in an office building, transceivers might attach to an Ethernet in a hallway ceiling Figure 15.4 illustrates how the original Thicknet wiring used an AUI cable to connect a computer to a transceiver

20 15.7 Ethernet Evolution and Thicknet Wiring © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.20

21 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Thinnet Ethernet Wiring A second generation of Ethernet used a thinner coaxial cable that was more flexible than Thicknet –Formally named 10Base2 and informally known as Thinwire Ethernet or Thinnet Thinnet integrates a transceiver directly on the NIC –runs a coaxial cable from one computer to another Figure 15.5 (below) illustrates Thinnet wiring

22 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Thinnet Ethernet Wiring Thinnet had advantages and disadvantages The primary advantages –lower overall cost and ease of installation –No external transceivers were needed –Thinnet cable could be installed in a convenient path The chief disadvantage –because the entire network was vulnerable if a user unplugged a segment of the network to relocate wires or move a computer, the entire network would stop working

23 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Twisted Pair Ethernet Wiring and Hubs A third generation of Ethernet wiring made a dramatic shift: –In place of coaxial cable it uses a central electronic device separate from the computers attached to the network –Instead of heavy, shielded cabling it uses twisted pair wiring The technology is informally known as twisted pair Ethernet, and has replaced other versions –Thus, when someone now refers to Ethernet, they are referring to twisted pair Ethernet The electronic device that served as the central interconnection was known as a hub –Hubs were available in a variety of sizes, with the cost proportional to size, but recently replaced with switches

24 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Çift Bükümlü Ethernet Kablolama ve Hub lar Üçüncü nesil ethernet kablolama çarpıcı şekilde değişim gerçekleştirdi: –Eşeksenel kablo yerine it uses a central electronic device separate from the computers attached to the network –Ağır, zırhlı kablolama yerine Çift bükümlü kablolar kullanılır Teknoloji çift bükümlü ethernet olarak bilinir ve diğer veriyonların yerini alır. –Böylece, ethernet ifade edilmek istendiğibnde, çift bükümlü ethernet ifade edilmiş olur Merkezi birlikte bağlantı servisi sunan elektronik araç hub olarak bilinir –Hub lar değişken boyutlarda mevcuttur, maliyeti boyutuyla orantılı, fakat son zamanlarda switch ler ile yer değiştirmiştir

25 15.9 Twisted Pair Ethernet Wiring and Hubs © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.25

26 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Twisted Pair Ethernet Wiring and Hubs A hub emulates a physical cable –making the entire system operate like a conventional Ethernet A system that uses a hub in CSMA/CD receives a copy of each frame and uses the address to determine –whether to process or ignore the frame Twisted pair Ethernet retains the same frame format as the previous versions In fact, software on a computer cannot distinguish between thick Ethernet, thin Ethernet, and twisted pair Ethernet –The NIC handles the details and hides any differences

27 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Çift Bükümlü Ethernet Kablolama ve Hub lar hub bir fiziksel kablo ile çalışır –Bütün sistemi olağan bir ethernet gibi işletir CSMA/CD de bir hub kullanan sistem her frame in kopyasını alır ve adresini kullanrak şuna karar verir –İşleteceğine mi yoksa o frame i reddeteceğine mi Çift Bükümlü Ethernet bir önceki versiyonun aynı frame formatını devam ettirir Gerçekte, bilgisayardaki yazılım thick, thin ve çift bükümlü Ethernet arasında ayrım yapamayabilir –NIC detayları tutar ve herhangi farklılıkları saklar

28 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Physical and Logical Ethernet Topology Twisted pair Ethernet appears to follow a star topology –In fact, the term hub arose to clarify the concept of a central interconnection point –However, because a hub emulates a physical cable the system appears to perform as if computers attach to a cable –In fact, professionals joked that a hub really provided a bus in a box To understand Ethernet topology –we must distinguish between logical and physical topologies –Logically twisted pair Ethernet employs a bus topology –Physically twisted pair Ethernet forms a star-shaped topology

29 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Physical and Logical Ethernet Topology Çift Bükümlü Ethernet yıldız topolojisini takip eder görünür –Gerçekte, hub terimi merkezi bağlantı noktası konseptini açıklamak amacıyla meydana gelmiştir –Bununla birlikte, bir hub bir fiziksel kablo ile çalışır the system appears to perform as if computers attach to a cable –In fact, professionals joked that a hub really provided a bus in a box Ethernet topology sini anlamak için –Mantıksal ve fiziksel topolojileri ayırt etmemiz lazım –Logically (mantıksal) Çift bükümlü ethernet bir bus topolojisini görevlendirir –Physically (fiziksel) Çift Bükümlü ethernet bir yıldız-şekilli topoloji oluşturur

30 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Wiring in an Office Building The styles of wiring used for LANs make little difference in a machine room or laboratory The type of wiring makes a major difference in terms of –the type –number of wires needed –the distance spanned –the cost The three versions of Ethernet wiring illustrate the three principal forms that LANs use Figure 15.7 depicts wiring on a floor of an office building –Note that twisted pair Ethernet requires many individual cables to go between offices and a central point (wiring closet) –Thus, twisted pair Ethernet requires careful labeling of cables

31 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.31 Figure 15.7 Illustration of various LAN wiring schemes that have been used in an office building (Part I)

32 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.32 Figure 15.7 Illustration of various LAN wiring schemes that have been used in an office building (Part II)

33 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Variants of Twisted Pair Ethernet and Speeds Significant improvements have been made in the quality and shielding available in twisted pair cables –the data rate used on twisted pair Ethernet has increased Figure 15.8 summarizes the three types of twisted pair Ethernet and the cable used with each Higher-speed Ethernet technologies use an electronic device known as a switch rather than a hub To remain backward compatible –standards for the higher-speed versions specify that interfaces automatically sense the speed at which a connection can operate –and slow down to accommodate older devices –For example, if one plugs an Ethernet cable between an old device that uses 10BaseT and a new device that uses 1000BaseT the new device will autosense

34 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Çift Bükümlü Ethernetin çeşitleri ve Hızları Çift bükümlü kalolarda kaplama ve kalite alanında belirgin ilerlemeler olmuştur –Çift bükümlü ethernette veri hızı artırılmıştır Figure çeşit Çift bükümlü ethernet tipini ve kullanılan kabloları gösterir Yüksek-Hızlı ethernet teknolojisi hub yerine switch olarak bilinen elktronik araçları kullanır backward compatible olması için –Yüksek-hız versiyonları için standartlar bağlantı için hızı otomatik algılama özelliğini belirtmelidir –Ve eski araçlar ile uzlaşmak için hızını düşürmelidir- –Örneğin, 10BaseT kullanan eski bir araç ve 1000BaseT kullanan yeni b,r cihaz arasından ethernet bağlanırsa Yeni araç otomatik algılamalıdır (autosense )

35 15.12 Variants of Twisted Pair Ethernet and Speeds © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.35

36 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Twisted Pair Connectors and Cables Twisted pair Ethernet uses RJ45 connectors –which are larger versions of the RJ11 connectors used to connect telephones What is straight and crossed Ethernet cable? A straight cable, used between a computer and a switch –connects each pin of the RJ45 attached to one end of the cable directly to the corresponding pin on the RJ45 at the other end A crossed cable, which is used to connect two switches –connects a pin on one end to a different pin on the other end To help technicians make the correct connections –individual wires in a Category 5 or Category 6 cable are coated with colored plastic Figure 15.9 lists the color codes used with a straight cable

37 © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved Çift bükümlü bağlayıcılar ve kablolar Çift bükümlü ethernet RJ45 bağlayıcı kullanır –Telefonları bağlayan RJ11 lerin daha geniş versiyonları straight ve crossed Ethernet kablo nedir? straight (Düz) kablo, bir bilgisayar ve switch arasında kullanılır –connects each pin of the RJ45 attached to one end of the cable directly to the corresponding pin on the RJ45 at the other end crossed (çaprazlanmış) kablo, iki switch in bağlanlasında kullanılır –connects a pin on one end to a different pin on the other end Teknisyene yardım için doğru haberleşme –individual wires in a Category 5 or Category 6 cable are coated with colored plastic Figure 15.9 lists the color codes used with a straight cable

38 15.13 Twisted Pair Connectors and Cables © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.38


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