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Sekizinci Bölüm Fiyat Prof.Dr. Günal ÖNCE.

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... konulu sunumlar: "Sekizinci Bölüm Fiyat Prof.Dr. Günal ÖNCE."— Sunum transkripti:

1 Sekizinci Bölüm Fiyat Prof.Dr. Günal ÖNCE

2 Fiyatın önemi Price is a key element in the marketing mix because:
Directly Price relates directly to the generation of total revenue Price is also the only marketing mix element that generates revenue, others are costs Indirectly -Price can be a major determinant of the quantity of goods sold Price also influences total costs through its impact on quantity sold Symbolically Price has a psychological impact on customers By raising price the quality of the product can be emphasised By lowering price marketers can emphasis a bargain

3 Price and Competition Price competition Is a policy whereby marketers emphasises price as an issue and matches or beats the prices of competitors Non-price competition Is a policy in which a seller elects not to focus on price but to emphasis other factors instead.

4 Non-Price Competition
Non price competition is done in the following ways: - Reinforcing the quality image of the product - Reinforcing the desirability of the product benefits - Using extended warranty to help customers think they are getting more for their money - Emphasise the longer term cost saving derived from using this product with the cheaper competition - Customer loyalty cards - Incentives for purchasing off-peak, or out of season - Internet shopping - Home delivery systems

5 When Setting Prices Internal Factors Pricing Decisions
Positioning Objectives External Factors Target Market

6 External Factors that affect Pricing Decisions
The Market and Demand Pricing in Different Types of Markets Consumer Perceptions of Price and Value Price-Demand Relationship Price Elasticity of Demand Competitors’ Costs, Prices and Offers Other External Factors

7 External influences on pricing
Customers and consumers: demand & elasticity; price sensitivity Channels of distribution: need to cover costs, value added to products; desired margins Competitors: pricing under different market structures Legal and regulatory: freedom to set prices, unfair pricing practices: sales taxes, VAT and their impact on prices

8 Internal & External Influences on Pricing
Internal factors Marketing strategies .Targeting positioning and .marketing mix strategy -Financial strategies the cost base of fixed & variable costs the financial objectives of the organisation External factors Types of customers customer perception of value of the product elasticity of demand the competitiveness of the market place perfect competition monopolistic oligopolistic pure monopoly

9 Marketing Mix Variables that Affect Pricing Decisions
Internal Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions This CTR relates to the discussion on pp Product Design and Quality Marketing-Mix Strategy Marketing Mix Strategy Price must be considered in light of its role in support of the overall marketing mix. Price is one kind of information the consumer receives about the product. Price should consistently support the overall positioning strategy targeted by the marketing mix. Non-Price Factors Distribution Promotion

10 Internal Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions
Marketing Objectives Marketing-Mix Strategy Costs Organizational Considerations

11 Fiyatlandırma Hedefleri
Cari karın maksimizasyonu Hedef kar Pazar Payı (pazara derinliğine girme) Satış gelirlerinin maksimizasyonu Pazarın kaymağını alma

12 Fiyatlandırma Kararlarını etkileyen Çeşitli çıkar grupları
Aracı kuruluşlar Rakipler Üretim faktörleri sahipleri Hükümet İşletmenin diğer bölüm yöneticileri

13 Fiyatlandırma sürecinde gözönünde tutulması gereken faktörler
Mamulün üretim veya alım maliyeti Mamule olan talep, Rekabet durumu, Hedef alınan Pazar payı, Pazarın kaymağını alma veya pazarın derinliğine girme stratejisi Pazarlama karmasının diğer unsurları

14 Fiyatlandırma yöntmleri
Maliyete yönelik fiyatlandırma Talebi temel alan fiyatlandırma Rekabete yönelik fiyatlandırma

15 Maliyete yönelik fiyatlandırma
Maliyet artı usulü Değişken maliyet esası Tam maliyet esası Hedef fiyatlandırma (sabit kar hedefli)

16 Breakeven Analysis Cost in Dollars (thousands)
200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 10 20 30 40 50 Total Revenue Total Cost Fixed Cost Target Profit ($200,000) Sales Volume in Units (thousands) Cost in Dollars (thousands)

17 Demand Curves Demand Curves Price Quantity Demanded per Period
This CTR corresponds to Figure 10-4 on p. 311 and relates to the discussion on pp Price Quantity Demanded per Period A. Inelastic Demand - Demand Hardly Changes With a Small Change in Price. P2 P1 Q1 Q2 P’2 P’1 B. Elastic Demand - Demand Changes Greatly With Price Demand Relationship A demand curve show the number of units the market will buy in a given time period at various prices. The price elasticity of demand illustrates how responsive demand will be to a change in price. Two concepts are important here: Inelastic Demand. If demand hardly changes with a small change in price, demand is inelastic. Elastic Demand. If a small change in prices changes demand greatly, demand is elastic. Discussion Note: The ethical issues involved in pricing products characterized by inelastic demand are often complicated and controversial. For example, many new drugs are extremely expensive to develop and market but may be the only treatment available for an illness. In other cases, relatively cheap drugs are sold for high prices under the same “must have” conditions. Also, the concept of induced demand, which characterizes both the medical and legal professions is a controversial issue. Induced demand refers to the fact that in these industries, the provider also determines the level of demand or product to be used. In both cases, those providers also set the price of their services. To make matters worse, consumers do not have price comparison information. For example, the WSJ reported heart by-pass operations for two hospitals within four miles of each other varying on price by over $20,000. And even if consumers have knowledge, in critical care situations they may not have time to exercise choice.

18 Talebe yönelik fiyatlandırma
Maliyet değil alıcı, daha doğrusu alıcının malın değerine ilişkin değerlendirmesi esas alınır.

19 Rekabete yönelik fiyatlandırma
Cari fiyat (piyasa fiyatını) esas alma Kapalı zarf usulü

20 Psikolojik fiyatlandırma taktikleri ve uygulamaları
Küsüratlı fiyatlandırma Sabit fiyatla fiyatlandırma Prestij fiyatlandırma Miktar indirimi yoluyla fiyatlandırma

21 Tutundurucu fiyatlandırma
Fiyat liderleri, Özel-olay fiyatlaması Nakit iadesi veya bir mamul verme, Özel-faizli ödeme planı Suni indirim veya psikolojik iskonto

22 Farklılaştırılmış fiyatlama (fiyat farklılaştırması
Tüketici esasına göre, Mamul esasına göre, İmaj esasına göre, Yer esasına göre, Zaman esasına göre,

23 Price-Adjustment Strategies
Adjustment Strategies - II This CTR corresponds to Table 11-2 on p. 334 and relates to the discussion on pp Psychological Pricing Promotional Pricing Adjusting Prices for Psychological Effect. Price Used as a Quality Indicator. Geographical Pricing Temporarily Reducing Prices to Increase Short-Run Sales. i.e. Loss Leaders, Special-Events Psychological Pricing. A key component in psychological pricing is the reference price consumers carry in their mind when considering sellers prices. Promotional Pricing. Promotional prices are temporary reductions below list and sometimes below costs, used to attract customers: Loss leaders. These may be offered below costs to attract attention to an entire line. Special event. This type of pricing may be used during slow seasons. Cash rebates or low financing. These “extras” may bring in customers “on the brink” and help them to decide to finally purchase. Geographical Pricing. Several forms of geographical pricing are common: FOB-Origin. Free On Board has customer pay freight. Uniform Delivered. Here the company charges the same price to all. Zone. Zone uses different areas pay different prices on freight but all customers within the same area pay the same freight charges. Basing-Point. Under this system, all customers charged freight from a specified billing location. Freight-Absorption. Here the seller pays all or part of the shipping costs to get the desired business. International Pricing. Firms may charge the same price throughout the world, especially for high-ticket, high-tech products like jetliners. Or it may offer different prices based upon differing taxes, tariffs, distribution, and promotion costs. International Pricing Adjusting Prices to Account for the Geographic Location of Customers. i.e. FOB-Origin, Uniform-Delivered, Zone Pricing, Basing-Point, & Freight-Absorption. Adjusting Prices for International Markets. Price Depends on Costs, Consumers, Economic Conditions & Other Factors.

24 İndirimli fiyatlar ve diğer fiyat farklılaştırma taktikleri
Nakit iskontoları Miktar iskontoları Fonksiyonel iskontolar Mevsimlik iskontolar, Coğrafi farklılaştırma, FOB fiyat Tek teslim fiyatı Bölge teslim fiyatı

25 Price-Adjustment Strategies
Price Adjustment Strategies I This CTR corresponds to Table 11-2 on p. 334 and relates to the material on pp Price-Adjustment Strategies Discount & Allowance Reducing Prices to Reward Customer Responses such as Paying Early or Promoting the Product. Segmented Adjusting Prices to Allow for Differences in Customers, Products, or Locations. Price Adjustment Strategies Companies typically adjust their prices to account for various customer differences and changing situations: Cash Discount Customer Discount and Allowance Pricing. Several forms of discount and allowance pricing are used by marketers: Cash Discounts. These are price reductions to buyers who pay bills promptly. Quantity Discounts. These refer to price reductions per unit on large volumes. Functional Discounts. These are granted to channel members who perform various marketing functions. Seasonal Discounts. These are granted to buyers who purchase merchandise out of season. Allowances. These are discounts such as trade-ins for turning in old items on new purchases or promotional allowances for participating in seller sponsored advertising can also lower buyer prices. Segmented Pricing. Segmented pricing refers to pricing differences not based on costs and takes several forms: Customer-segment pricing. These target a specific segment, as in senior citizen discounts. Product-form pricing. This varies costs on versions of a product by features but not production costs. Location pricing. This stems from preferences where different locations have different perceived values, such as seating in a theater. Time pricing. This refers to price breaks given at times of lower demand. Quantity Discount Product Form Functional Discount Location Seasonal Discount Time Trade-In Allowance

26 Initiating and Responding to Price Changes
This CTR relates to the material on pp Competitor Reactions to Price Changes Initiating Price Cuts Initiating Price Changes Price changes may be initiated for several reasons, including: Price Cuts. Reasons for cutting prices may stem from overcapacity, falling market share, or attempts to dominate the market through lower costs. Price Increases. Inflation is a major source of price increases but so is the tendency to speculate on inflationary trends and raise prices beyond the rate of inflation. Over demand may also cause prices to rise. Higher prices can also increase profit margins. Buyer Reactions to Price Changes. Buyer reactions usually respond directly to price changes but not always. Usually lower prices pleases consumers, higher prices do not. But sometimes higher prices support quality improvements and lower prices mean company or product problems. Whether the buyer is correct or not in these perceptions will not immediately change their inclination to act on them. Competitor Reactions to Price Changes. Competitors most often react in industries with a small number of firms, uniform products in the market, and buyers are well informed. Competitive reactions may be similar price changes or increased non price competition. Companies should anticipate probable competitive moves prior to initiating price changes. Price Changes Buyer Reactions to Price Changes Initiating Price Increases

27 Value-Based Pricing Product Cost Price Value Customers Customer Value
This CTR corresponds to Figure 10-7 on p. 316 and relates to the discussion on pp Cost-Based Pricing Value-Based Pricing Product Cost Price Value Customers Customer Value Price Cost Product Buyer-Based Approach Value-Based Pricing . This approach uses the buyer's perception of value as the key to pricing. Strategy under this approach utilizes non price mix variables to help set perceived value in the buyer's mind. As illustrated on the CTR, this approach is the reverse of the cost-based approach to pricing. The key is that the marketer must have an accurate view of what benefits and features consumer want and are willing to pay for in setting a specific value-pricing goal. Discussion Note: Toyota Motor company used a value-based approach on its lower end cars like the Tercel and the Corolla in the early 1980s. Once the value price was determined and profit per car objectives set, engineers and designers were challenged with the task of making the cost of production support those goals.

28 Yeni mamulü fiyatlandırma stratejileri
Pazarın kayağını alma stratejisi Pazar derinliğine girme

29 Mamul hattının fiyatlandırılması
Mamul hattı, kullanımında ve fiziksel özelliklerinde benzerlik olan mamullerden oluşur Bağıntılı talep; bir malın talebinin diğer malın talebini etkilemesi halinde bu iki malın talebi bağıntılıdır. Bağıntılı maliyet; bir malın üretimindeki bir değişme diğer malın maliyetini etkiliyorsa bu malların maliyetleri bağıntılıdır.


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