2Fiyatın önemi Price is a key element in the marketing mix because: Directly Price relates directly to the generation of total revenue Price is also the only marketing mix element that generates revenue, others are costsIndirectly-Price can be a major determinant of the quantity of goods sold Price also influences total costs through its impact on quantity soldSymbolically Price has a psychological impact on customers By raising price the quality of the product can be emphasised By lowering price marketers can emphasis a bargain
3Price and CompetitionPrice competitionIs a policy whereby marketers emphasises price as an issue and matches or beats the prices of competitorsNon-price competitionIs a policy in which a seller elects not to focus on price but to emphasis other factors instead.
4Non-Price Competition Non price competition is done in the following ways:- Reinforcing the quality image of the product- Reinforcing the desirability of the product benefits- Using extended warranty to help customers think they are getting more for their money- Emphasise the longer term cost saving derived from using this product with the cheaper competition- Customer loyalty cards- Incentives for purchasing off-peak, or out of season- Internet shopping- Home delivery systems
6External Factors that affect Pricing Decisions The Market and DemandPricing in Different Types of MarketsConsumer Perceptions of Price and ValuePrice-Demand RelationshipPrice Elasticity of DemandCompetitors’ Costs, Prices and OffersOther External Factors
7External influences on pricing Customers and consumers: demand & elasticity; price sensitivityChannels of distribution: need to cover costs, value added to products; desired marginsCompetitors: pricing under different market structuresLegal and regulatory: freedom to set prices, unfair pricing practices: sales taxes, VAT and their impact on prices
8Internal & External Influences on Pricing Internal factors Marketing strategies .Targeting positioning and .marketing mix strategy -Financial strategies the cost base of fixed & variable costs the financial objectives of the organisationExternal factors Types of customers customer perception of value of the product elasticity of demand the competitiveness of the market place perfect competition monopolistic oligopolistic pure monopoly
9Marketing Mix Variables that Affect Pricing Decisions Internal Factors Affecting Pricing DecisionsThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppProduct Designand QualityMarketing-MixStrategyMarketing Mix StrategyPrice must be considered in light of its role in support of the overall marketing mix. Price is one kind of information the consumer receives about the product. Price should consistently support the overall positioning strategy targeted by the marketing mix.Non-PriceFactorsDistributionPromotion
11Fiyatlandırma Hedefleri Cari karın maksimizasyonuHedef karPazar Payı (pazara derinliğine girme)Satış gelirlerinin maksimizasyonuPazarın kaymağını alma
12Fiyatlandırma Kararlarını etkileyen Çeşitli çıkar grupları Aracı kuruluşlarRakiplerÜretim faktörleri sahipleriHükümetİşletmenin diğer bölüm yöneticileri
13Fiyatlandırma sürecinde gözönünde tutulması gereken faktörler Mamulün üretim veya alım maliyetiMamule olan talep,Rekabet durumu,Hedef alınan Pazar payı,Pazarın kaymağını alma veya pazarın derinliğine girme stratejisiPazarlama karmasının diğer unsurları
14Fiyatlandırma yöntmleri Maliyete yönelik fiyatlandırmaTalebi temel alan fiyatlandırmaRekabete yönelik fiyatlandırma
15Maliyete yönelik fiyatlandırma Maliyet artı usulüDeğişken maliyet esasıTam maliyet esasıHedef fiyatlandırma (sabit kar hedefli)
16Breakeven Analysis Cost in Dollars (thousands) 2004006008001,0001,2001020304050Total RevenueTotal CostFixed CostTarget Profit ($200,000)Sales Volume in Units (thousands)Cost in Dollars (thousands)
17Demand Curves Demand Curves Price Quantity Demanded per Period This CTR corresponds to Figure 10-4 on p. 311 and relates to the discussion on ppPriceQuantity Demanded per PeriodA. Inelastic Demand -Demand Hardly Changes Witha Small Change in Price.P2P1Q1Q2P’2P’1B. Elastic Demand -Demand Changes Greatly WithPrice Demand RelationshipA demand curve show the number of units the market will buy in a given time period at various prices. The price elasticity of demand illustrates how responsive demand will be to a change in price. Two concepts are important here:Inelastic Demand. If demand hardly changes with a small change in price, demand is inelastic.Elastic Demand. If a small change in prices changes demand greatly, demand is elastic.Discussion Note: The ethical issues involved in pricing products characterized by inelastic demand are often complicated and controversial. For example, many new drugs are extremely expensive to develop and market but may be the only treatment available for an illness. In other cases, relatively cheap drugs are sold for high prices under the same “must have” conditions.Also, the concept of induced demand, which characterizes both the medical and legal professions is a controversial issue. Induced demand refers to the fact that in these industries, the provider also determines the level of demand or product to be used. In both cases, those providers also set the price of their services. To make matters worse, consumers do not have price comparison information. For example, the WSJ reported heart by-pass operations for two hospitals within four miles of each other varying on price by over $20,000. And even if consumers have knowledge, in critical care situations they may not have time to exercise choice.
18Talebe yönelik fiyatlandırma Maliyet değil alıcı, daha doğrusu alıcının malın değerine ilişkin değerlendirmesi esas alınır.
19Rekabete yönelik fiyatlandırma Cari fiyat (piyasa fiyatını) esas almaKapalı zarf usulü
20Psikolojik fiyatlandırma taktikleri ve uygulamaları Küsüratlı fiyatlandırmaSabit fiyatla fiyatlandırmaPrestij fiyatlandırmaMiktar indirimi yoluyla fiyatlandırma
21Tutundurucu fiyatlandırma Fiyat liderleri,Özel-olay fiyatlamasıNakit iadesi veya bir mamul verme,Özel-faizli ödeme planıSuni indirim veya psikolojik iskonto
23Price-Adjustment Strategies Adjustment Strategies - IIThis CTR corresponds to Table 11-2 on p. 334 and relates to the discussion on ppPsychological PricingPromotional PricingAdjusting Prices for PsychologicalEffect.Price Used as a Quality Indicator.Geographical PricingTemporarily Reducing Prices toIncrease Short-Run Sales.i.e. Loss Leaders, Special-EventsPsychological Pricing. A key component in psychological pricing is the reference price consumers carry in their mind when considering sellers prices.Promotional Pricing. Promotional prices are temporary reductions below list and sometimes below costs, used to attract customers:Loss leaders. These may be offered below costs to attract attention to an entire line.Special event. This type of pricing may be used during slow seasons.Cash rebates or low financing. These “extras” may bring in customers “on the brink” and help them to decide to finally purchase.Geographical Pricing. Several forms of geographical pricing are common:FOB-Origin. Free On Board has customer pay freight.Uniform Delivered. Here the company charges the same price to all.Zone. Zone uses different areas pay different prices on freight but all customers within the same area pay the same freight charges.Basing-Point. Under this system, all customers charged freight from a specified billing location.Freight-Absorption. Here the seller pays all or part of the shipping costs to get the desired business.International Pricing. Firms may charge the same price throughout the world, especially for high-ticket, high-tech products like jetliners. Or it may offer different prices based upon differing taxes, tariffs, distribution, and promotion costs.International PricingAdjusting Prices to Account for theGeographic Location of Customers.i.e. FOB-Origin, Uniform-Delivered,Zone Pricing, Basing-Point, &Freight-Absorption.Adjusting Prices for InternationalMarkets.Price Depends on Costs, Consumers,Economic Conditions & Other Factors.
24İndirimli fiyatlar ve diğer fiyat farklılaştırma taktikleri Nakit iskontolarıMiktar iskontolarıFonksiyonel iskontolarMevsimlik iskontolar,Coğrafi farklılaştırma,FOB fiyatTek teslim fiyatıBölge teslim fiyatı
25Price-Adjustment Strategies Price Adjustment Strategies IThis CTR corresponds to Table 11-2 on p. 334 and relates to the material on ppPrice-Adjustment StrategiesDiscount & AllowanceReducing Prices to RewardCustomer Responses such asPaying Early or Promotingthe Product.SegmentedAdjusting Prices to Allowfor Differences in Customers,Products, or Locations.Price Adjustment StrategiesCompanies typically adjust their prices to account for various customer differences and changing situations:Cash DiscountCustomerDiscount and Allowance Pricing. Several forms of discount and allowance pricing are used by marketers:Cash Discounts. These are price reductions to buyers who pay bills promptly.Quantity Discounts. These refer to price reductions per unit on large volumes.Functional Discounts. These are granted to channel members who perform various marketing functions.Seasonal Discounts. These are granted to buyers who purchase merchandise out of season.Allowances. These are discounts such as trade-ins for turning in old items on new purchases or promotional allowances for participating in seller sponsored advertising can also lower buyer prices.Segmented Pricing. Segmented pricing refers to pricing differences not based on costs and takes several forms:Customer-segment pricing. These target a specific segment, as in senior citizen discounts.Product-form pricing. This varies costs on versions of a product by features but not production costs.Location pricing. This stems from preferences where different locations have different perceived values, such as seating in a theater.Time pricing. This refers to price breaks given at times of lower demand.Quantity DiscountProduct FormFunctional DiscountLocationSeasonal DiscountTimeTrade-In Allowance
26Initiating and Responding to Price Changes This CTR relates to the material on ppCompetitorReactionstoPriceChangesInitiatingPrice CutsInitiating Price ChangesPrice changes may be initiated for several reasons, including:Price Cuts. Reasons for cutting prices may stem from overcapacity, falling market share, or attempts to dominate the market through lower costs.Price Increases. Inflation is a major source of price increases but so is the tendency to speculate on inflationary trends and raise prices beyond the rate of inflation. Over demand may also cause prices to rise. Higher prices can also increase profit margins.Buyer Reactions to Price Changes. Buyer reactions usually respond directly to price changes but not always. Usually lower prices pleases consumers, higher prices do not. But sometimes higher prices support quality improvements and lower prices mean company or product problems. Whether the buyer is correct or not in these perceptions will not immediately change their inclination to act on them.Competitor Reactions to Price Changes. Competitors most often react in industries with a small number of firms, uniform products in the market, and buyers are well informed. Competitive reactions may be similar price changes or increased non price competition. Companies should anticipate probable competitive moves prior to initiating price changes.Price ChangesBuyerReactionstoPriceChangesInitiatingPriceIncreases
27Value-Based Pricing Product Cost Price Value Customers Customer Value This CTR corresponds to Figure 10-7 on p. 316 and relates to the discussion on ppCost-Based PricingValue-Based PricingProductCostPriceValueCustomersCustomerValuePriceCostProductBuyer-Based ApproachValue-Based Pricing . This approach uses the buyer's perception of value as the key to pricing. Strategy under this approach utilizes non price mix variables to help set perceived value in the buyer's mind. As illustrated on the CTR, this approach is the reverse of the cost-based approach to pricing. The key is that the marketer must have an accurate view of what benefits and features consumer want and are willing to pay for in setting a specific value-pricing goal.Discussion Note: Toyota Motor company used a value-based approach on its lower end cars like the Tercel and the Corolla in the early 1980s. Once the value price was determined and profit per car objectives set, engineers and designers were challenged with the task of making the cost of production support those goals.
28Yeni mamulü fiyatlandırma stratejileri Pazarın kayağını alma stratejisiPazar derinliğine girme
29Mamul hattının fiyatlandırılması Mamul hattı, kullanımında ve fiziksel özelliklerinde benzerlik olan mamullerden oluşurBağıntılı talep; bir malın talebinin diğer malın talebini etkilemesi halinde bu iki malın talebi bağıntılıdır.Bağıntılı maliyet; bir malın üretimindeki bir değişme diğer malın maliyetini etkiliyorsa bu malların maliyetleri bağıntılıdır.