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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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... konulu sunumlar: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Sunum transkripti:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Bitki Yapısı

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bitki’de genel görünüş

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bitkilerde hayvanlarda olduğu gibi organ, doku, hücre hiyerarşisine sahip Root sistem ve shoot sistem Üç basic organ; kök (root), gövde, yaprak Figure 35.2 Reproductive shoot (flower) Terminal bud Node Internode Terminal bud Vegetative shoot Blade Petiole Stem Leaf Taproot Lateral roots Root system Shoot system Axillary bud

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Root (kök) – Ortama bağlar – Mineral ve su absorbe eder – Organik madde depo eder – Gravitropism – Absorbsiyon tip (uç) kısma yakın yerde olur (çok sayıda ince türler, yüzey artırır) – Lateral kök ve emici tüyler aynı mı? – Kazık ve saçak kök

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Embryonic root veya radicle

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Tap (kazık) root ve Fibrous (açak) kök Her iki tipte radicle’den orjin alır

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8 Adventitious Roots: Radicle’den başka yerde orjin alan kök

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Modifiye kök (a) Prop roots(b) Storage roots (c) “Strangling” aerial roots (d) Buttress roots (e) Pneumatophores (f) Photosynthetic roots (f) Contractile roots

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dış Anatomi Root cap (Kök şapkası) Hücre bölünme bölgesi Uzama bölgesi Farklılaşma bölgesi

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Root Cap (Kök şapkası) Her bir kök ucunda yüksük şeklinde olan hücre grubu Mekanik yaralanmaya karşı kök’ü korur Golgi mükilaj salgılar ve labirent oluşturur Yer çekiminin algısında etkili – Amyloplastlar (statolit) hücrenin alt kısımlarında gruplaşmış

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hücre bölünme bölgesi Apical meristem - gün içinde bir veya iki defa bölünür Meristem : – protoderm (epidermis oluşturur) – ground meristem (zemin dokuyu verir) – prokambium (primary phloem ve xylem)

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Uzama bölgesi Hücreler daha uzun ve geniş

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Farklılaşma bölgesi epidermal hücrelerin uzantısı olarak emici tüyler oluşur Su alımı için yüzey artırıcı Kütikül kökte vardır ama emici tüylerde yok

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Farklılaşma bölgesi

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lateral kök Pericycle’dan köken alır Figure Cortex Vascular cylinder Epidermis Lateral root 100  m Emerging lateral root

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Root Cap Bülünme Böl. Koteks dışına doğru büyüme Saçaklı (Fibrous) kök, çok sayıda lateral kök oluşumu

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Kökte apical meristem

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

20 Protoderm

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Procambium

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ground Meristem

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Suyu ve suda çözünmüş maddeleri köklerden yapraklara taşır Yapraklarda üretilen besini bitkinin diğer bölümlerine iletir Çiçeği meyveyi ve yaprağı taşır Bitkinin dik durmasını sağlar Bazen toprak altında bulunabilir Gövde (Stem)

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings – Alternate dizilmiş nodlara sahip – Nodlar arası kısım; Internod – Aksillari bud (tomurcuk); lateral shoot (dal) – Terminal bud;tip kısımda bulunur uzamayı sağlar – Apikal dormansi ??

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Apikal dormansi; apikal meristemde üretilen bazı enzimlerin lateral meristemdeki büyümeyi baskılaması Dallı olan bitkiler apikal dormansi zayıf Apical meristem uzaklaştırıldığında bitki daha dallı (fırça) olacak

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Modifiye Gövde (e) Corm. A corm is a swollen, vertical stem with a papery covering Rhizomes. The edible base of this ginger plant is an example of a rhizome, a horizontal stem that grows just below the surface or emerges and grows along the surface. (d) Tubers. Tubers, such as these red potatoes, are enlarged ends of rhizomes specialized for storing food. The “eyes” arranged in a spiral pattern around a potato are clusters of axillary buds that mark the nodes. (c) Bulbs. Bulbs are vertical, underground shoots consisting mostly of the enlarged bases of leaves that store food. You can see the many layers of modified leaves attached to the short stem by slicing an onion bulb lengthwise. (b) Stolons. Shown here on a strawberry plant, stolons are horizontal stems that grow along the surface. These “runners” enable a plant to reproduce asexually, as plantlets form at nodes along each runner. (a) Storage leaves Stem Root Node Rhizome Root Bulb Stolon Corm Rizom Tuber Thorn Fotosentetik Kladofil

27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rizom Toprak altında horizontal yetişen gövde adventitious root bulunur İris, ginger (zencegil)

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stolon (runner) Toprak üstünde yetişen horizontal stem Uzun internod Çilek

29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Tuber Toprak altı stolonların ucunda besin depo eder Patatesin üzerindeki gözenekler (eyes) gövdede bulunan nodlardır

30 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bulb (soğan) Küçük stem üzerinde bir bud (tomurcuğun) etli büyük yapraklarla sarılması adventitious roots soğan

31 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Corm Bulb’a benzer fakat tüm kısım stemden oluşur. Stem etrafı kagıtsı bir yapıyla kaplanmış Besin depo eder ve adventitious rootlar var Crocus (Çiğdem)

32 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Kladofil yaprak benzeri stem asparagus

33 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fotosentetik Stem Kaktüs Besin ve su depo eder fotosentez

34 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Thorn (Diken) Keçi boynuzu Black Locust (yaprak; stipules)

35 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Yaprak (Leaf) Fotosentez, gaz alış veriş, terleme Düz bir blade ve sap (stalk, petiole)

36 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Yaprak kısımları Kutikul: dış kısım, mumsu, su kaybını önler Epidermis: Yaprağın alt ve üst kısımında bulunan kutikul altındakı kısım Vasküler doku: Yaprakta ven içerisinde bulunan Xylem ve Phloem Mezofil: Fotosentezin gerçekleştiği kısım o Palizat o Spongy (sünger) o Stoma: gaz alışveriş o Guard cell

37 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

38

39 Taksonomistler için yaprak morfolojisi önemli Figure 35.6a–c Petiole (a) Simple leaf. A simple leaf is a single, undivided blade. Some simple leaves are deeply lobed, as in an oak leaf. (b) Compound leaf. In a compound leaf, the blade consists of multiple leaflets. Notice that a leaflet has no axillary bud at its base. (c) Doubly compound leaf. In a doubly compound leaf, each leaflet is divided into smaller leaflets. Axillary bud Leaflet Petiole Axillary bud Leaflet Petiole

40 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Modifiye yaprak (a)Tendrils. The tendrils by which this pea plant clings to a support are modified leaves. After it has “lassoed” a support, a tendril forms a coil that brings the plant closer to the support. Tendrils are typically modified leaves, but some tendrils are modified stems, as in grapevines. (b)Spines. The spines of cacti, such as this prickly pear, are actually leaves, and photosynthesis is carried out mainly by the fleshy green stems. (c)Storage leaves. Most succulents, such as this ice plant, have leaves modified for storing water. (d)Bracts. Red parts of the poinsettia are often mistaken for petals but are actually modified leaves called bracts that surround a group of flowers. Such brightly colored leaves attract pollinators. (e)Reproductive leaves. The leaves of some succulents, such as Kalanchoe daigremontiana, produce adventitious plantlets, which fall off the leaf and take root in the soil.

41 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flower (Çiçek) Sepal Petal Stamen Pistil (carpel)

42 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

43 Perianth Petal: Corolla Sepal:Calyx

44 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pedisel Çiçek sap kısmı

45 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Reseptakül Çiçegin tüm kısımlarını üzerinde taşıyan, çiçek sapının genişlemiş kısmı

46 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sepal Genelde yeşil, çiçeğin daha narin kısımlarını korur

47 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nadirde olsa farklı renk olabilir

48 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Kaliks Sepal grubu

49 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Petal Sepal’in iç kısımda Farklı renli Polinatörleri çeker

50 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Korolla Petal grubu

51 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Perianth Sepal + Petals Üremede görevli olmayan çiçek kısımları

52 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Tepal Sepal ve petal arasında renk ayrımı yok

53 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Üreme kısmı Çiçeğin orta kısmında

54 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stamen Erkek üreme kısmı Arranged around the female parts

55 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anther Stamen üst kısmı Polen üretimi ve toplanması

56 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Filament Anteri tutan sap kısmı

57 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pistil Çiçeğin dişi üreme kısmı

58 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stigma Pistil’in uç kısmı Poleni yakalamak için yapışkan kısım

59 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Style Pistil’in boyun kısmı Stigma ve ovary arasında

60 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ovaryum Ovülü içeren pistil kısmı

61 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ovule Yumurtanın üretildiği ve fertilizasyon sonrası tohumun oluştuğu çiçek kısmı

62 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Complete (Tam) flower 4 kısımda var Sepals, petals, stamens and pistil

63 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Incomplete flowers 4 parçadan en az biri eksik

64 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Perfect Flower Erkek ve Dişi organ var

65 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Imperfect flowers Seks parçalarından biri eksik


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