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ETI 301 TRANSLATION THEORY NESLİHAN KANSU-YETKİNER Pragmatic Translation Strategies.

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... konulu sunumlar: "ETI 301 TRANSLATION THEORY NESLİHAN KANSU-YETKİNER Pragmatic Translation Strategies."— Sunum transkripti:

1 ETI 301 TRANSLATION THEORY NESLİHAN KANSU-YETKİNER Pragmatic Translation Strategies

2 ON PRAGMATIC TRANSLATION STRATEGIES Chesterman (1997) defines strategies as processes with which translators seek to conform to norms. Pragmatic strategies mean those that "... primarily have to do with the selection of information in the TT, a selection that is governed by the translator's knowledge of the prospective readership of the translation “ ( Chesterman 1997: 107).

3 The strategies on pragmatic level are wider entities, whereas syntactic and semantic strategies are more detailed. According to Chesterman (1997:107), it is particularly the pragmatic strategies that are often the result of the translator's general strategy of translating the text as a whole.

4 Pragmatic strategies 1-Cultural Filtering 2-Explicitness Change 3-Information Change 4-Interpersonal Change 5-Illocutionary Change 6-Coherence Change 7-Visibility Change 8-Redediting 10-Other Pragmatic Changes

5 P RAGMATIC S TRATEGY 1: C ULTURAL F ILTERING This strategy includes all kinds of domestication of the text into the target culture, translating the source and especially its culture-specific items in a way that they fit into the world picture of the target culture and conform to its norms. This pragmatic strategy could also be called adaptation, acculturation or naturalisation(see Aaltonen 1996). Cultural filtering is a term used by Juliane House(1997).

6 A STUDY ON CULTURAL FILTERING Text production across languages through translation is not just language, but social interaction between participants and cultures representing different, even incompatible worlds. The presentstudy illustrates some of the ways in which cultural norms and the process of norm- construction are manifested in the translation of a specific culture-bound topic generating norm- governed behavioral patterns different than its source text.

7 Primary aim of this study is to analyze an adolescent-oriented public health brochure titled “Feiten en Fabels over het Maagdenvlies” (Facts and Fiction about Hymen) and its Turkish version converted into a web site (Kızlık zarı Hakkında Doğrular ve Yanlışlar) by being summarized, distorted and manipulated to adapt Turkish culture.

8 T ÜRKÇE ÇEVIRI METINDE YER ALMAYAN BÖLÜM Yazarın Çevirisi “Bakirelik: Peki ya sen? Senin ne istediğin ve bakireliğin senin için ne anlama geldiği konusunda düşünmek önemlidir. Okuduğun gibi, farklı seçeneklere sahipsin. Elbette bakireliğin konusunda sen karar vereceksin. Ve seçimlerini başkalarıyla, örneğin ailenle paylaşıp paylaşmamak konusunda da belirleyici olan sensin. Ailenin, ait olduğun kültürün ve dinin kurallarına uymak isteyebilirsin. Bu kitapçıkta okuduğun gibi, bu kurallara uyan kızlar da var, kendi istediği gibi davrananlar da. Ayrıca, senin çok hoşuna giden bir birliktelik biçimi konusunda başkaları aynı fikirde olmayabilir”.

9 METİNDE DEĞİŞİKLİKLER: SPOR YAPMA VE TAMPON KULLANIMI Yazarın Çevirisi “Spor yaparak veya tampon kullanarak asla bekaretinizi kaybetmezsin. Bekaretini bir başkasıyla cinsel ilişkiye girersen kaybedersin. Olabilecek şey, örneğin tampon kullanımı nedeniyle kızlık zarının (sadece dış dokusu) biraz esnemesidir. Ama senin de bildiğin gibi kızlık zarının biraz esnemesi senin bekâretini etkilemez. Çok azıcık esnese bile senin kızlık zarına hiçbir şey olmayacaktır. Ayrıca bütün spor çeşitleri gerçekten zararsızdır. Spor yapmak hoşuna gidiyorsa, yapmayı sürdür”.

10 Web Sitesinde Yer Alan Türkçe Metin “Kızlık zarı spor yaparken veya tampon kullanınca yırtılabilir mi? Hayır, hangi sporu yaparsan yap, hatta bacaklarını tamamen ayırsan da hiçbir şey olmaz. Kızlık zarı yuvarlak, dolunay veya yarım ay şeklinde ve esnek ise tampon uygun bir şekilde kullanıldığında hiçbir şey olmayabilir. Ancak kızlık zarının tipinin bilinmediği durumlarda yırtılma olasılığı olabilir. Esnek değilse, düz çizgi gibi veya elek gibi küçük deliklerden oluşmuşsa, bazı kızlar yine de emin olmak için tampon kullanmazlar”.

11 P RAGMATIC S TRATEGY 2: E XPLICITNESS C HANGE This strategy involves changes in the explicitness of the message and can be divided into two according to the direction towards which the changes are made. In case an information would not be grasped in the target culture as it is, it may be made more or less explicit depending on what the translator believes the target text recipients need to be able to understand. A. Explicitation: The translator makes the message more explicit, adding components explicitly in the TT which are only implicit in the ST, i.e. gives explanations. This is a very common strategy. B. Implicitation: The translator leaves the message more implicit than the original. This is done when the translator expects the readers to be able to infer the information left out.

12 C OMPULSORY EXPLICITATION As soon as he got up, he called me”. Pragmatic Explicitation “-Derviş: Eli ne vakit harama uzandı ?” (Taner 2007:55). - Derviş: Has he ever looked with evil intentions at any one’s wife or daughter ?” (In Halman 1983:321)..

13 P RAGMATIC S TRATEGY 3: I NFORMATION C HANGE This strategy means either adding or omitting information in the message. A. Addition: Adding new (non-inferrable) information, which is considered relevant to the target culture recipients for their understanding of the text or making the text serve its purpose better. Whereas cultural filtering brings a text into another cultural system - filters its culture bound features - this strategy adds ingredients to the text which enable the target text reception.

14 B. Omission: Omitting information that is considered irrelevant for the recipients. This information can not be inferred. For instance, when the translator can not find any other solution to translating a figures of speech, she/he omits it altogether. If in translating puns, the other meaning is conveyed to the TT and the text translated literally, we can categorise this under omission, since the other meaning and thus the whole wordplay is omitted. Therefore omission may include total omission of text or omission of single meanings.

15 P RAGMATIC S TRATEGY 4: I NTERPERSONAL C HANGE This strategy involves changes in the level of formality. The strategy is of importance, since wordplay is culture-bound, and culture includes ideas of appropriate interaction

16 P OLLYANNA “Nancy!” “Yes, ma’am”. Nancy answered cheerfully, but she still continued wiping the pitcher in her hand. “Nancy”-Miss Polly’s voice was very stern now-“when I’m talking to you, I wish you to stop your work and listen to what I have to say”. Nancy flushed miserably. She set the pitcher down at once, with the cloth still about it, thereby nearly tipping it over-which did not add to her composure. “Yes ma’am. I will ma’am”, she stammered, righting the pitcher, and turning hastily, “I was only keepin on with my work ‘cause you especially told me this mornin’ ter hurry with my dishes ye know”. Her mistress frowned. “That will do, Nancy.I did not ask for explanations. I asked for your attention.

17 TURKISH TRANSLATION “Nensi! Nensiii! Nensi bu arada bulaşıkları yıkıyordu. Mutfaktan: -Efendim Hanımcığım diye cevap verdi. -Mutfak kapısından hızla içeri giren Bayan Polly: -Nensi dedi. Seninle konuştuğum zaman elindeki işi bırak, hemen yanıma gel! Nensi kulaklarına kadar kızardı. -Ama Hanımcığım... Bulaşığı hemen bitirmemi siz söylemiştiniz... Bayan Polly, kaşlarını çatarak: -Nensi, bana karşılık verme! Kulağını aç ve beni dinle! Mutfakta işin biterbitmez, tavan arasındaki odaya çık, eski sandıkları merdive altındaki boşluğa taşı. Odayı süpür ve iyice sil. Sonra yere bir örtü ser. Anlaşıldı mı?

18 Özgün Metin “Nancy” called a sharp voice. “Y-yes ma’am”, stammered Nancy, and hurried toward the house. Çeviri Metin -Nensi ! Nerdesin geveze kız? Hizmetçi kız telaşla eve koşarken cevap verdi: -Buradayım efendim, geliyorum hanımcığım!

19 PRAGMATIC STRATEGY 5: ILLOCUTIONARY CHANGE Locutionary act : saying something (the locution) with a certain meaning in traditional sense. This may not constitute a speech act. Illocutionary act: the performance of an act in saying something (vs. the general act of saying something). The illocutionary force is the speaker's intent. A true 'speech act'. e.g. informing, ordering, warning, undertaking. Perlocutionary acts : Speech acts that have an effect on the feelings, thoughts or actions of either the speaker or the listener. In other words, they seek to change minds!

20 Illocutionary changes are usually linked with other strategies. Changing the mood of the verb from indicative to imperative also involves an illocutionary change from statement to a command. -Can you open the door? Kapıyı aç -Thank you for not stepping on the grass. Çimenlere basmayınız -We will be right back after the commercial break. Reklamlar için ara veriyoruz. Sakın bir yere ayrılmayın!

21 PRAGMATIC STRATEGY 6: COHERENCE CHANGE Coherence changes are related with the logical arrangement of the information in the text. Why and when do we apply coherence change?

22 PRAGMATIC STRATEGY 7:PARTIAL TRANSLATION This covers any kind of partial translation such as summary translation, paraphrasing, transcription etc.

23 PRAGMATIC STRATEGY 8: VISIBILITY CHANGE It refers to a change in the status of the authorial presence or foregrounding of the transtorial presence. For instance, preface, footnotes, added glosses explicitly draw the readers’ attention to the presence of the translator.

24 PRAGMATIC STRATEGY 9: REEDITING A term suggested by Stetting (1989) to designate that sometimes radical reediting that the translators have to do on badly written original texts.

25 PRAGMATIC STRATEGY 10: OTHER PRAGMATIC CHANGES LAYOUT-think about British business lettes and the Turkish one. DIALECT: using British or American English. Using standard language or a local dialect.

26 . Some exercises…


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