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ÇMB 542 Air Pollution Control Technologies Yrd. Doç. Dr. Pınar ERGENEKON Lecture Notes 2010 Updated 09/2011.

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1 ÇMB 542 Air Pollution Control Technologies Yrd. Doç. Dr. Pınar ERGENEKON Lecture Notes 2010 Updated 09/2011

2 ÇMB542 You will find the answers to the following questions: –What are the air pollution types and sources, and major air pollutants –What are the behavior of target particulate and gaseous pollutants? –What are the common air pollution control technologies and their design criteria?

3 Course Structure Homeworks: %30 Exam: %20 Project: %20 Final Exam:%30 Super Pro Designer and Excell will be used for the HWs Books: 1)Air Pollution Control by Cooper and Alley, Fourth Edition 2)Air Pollution, Its origin and Control, Wark, Warner and Davis 3)Air Pollution Engineering Manual, Edited by Wayne T. Davis Lecture notes at Ders Web Sayfaları > ENVE542

4 DateScope Week 1 Intro/An overview of air pollution history in the world and in Turkey Week 2Atmospheric Pollutants, Pollutants of Global Concern, Causes Sources and Effects Week 3Selecting Appropriate Control Technologies (HW 1) Week 4Particulate Matter and Aerosol Physics Week 5Introduction to Superpro Week 6Particle Control Technologies (Cyclones, ESP) Week 7Particle Control Technologies (Fabric Filters, Particulate Scrubbers) Week 8A Particulate Control Problem Week 9Exam Week 10Properties of Gases and Vapors (HW 3) Week 11Gas and Vapor Control Technologies (VOC Incinerator, Gas Adsorption, Gas Absorption, Biological Control Systems) Week 12Control of Sulfur Oxides Week 13Control of Nitrogen Oxides (HW 4) Week 14A Vapor Control Problem

5 Term Project Design an appropriate control system for particulate and gaseous pollutants for the given exhaust stream (details will be given later) by using SuperPro. Your report should include: Flowchart of proposed control system drawn by SuperPro (Please write in detail how to do this in superPro) Assumptions made for the design except that given conditions The composition of each stream (Mass & Energy Balance Results) SuperPro (Please write in detail how to do this in superPro) Equipment Sizing (Parameters of the designed equipment i.e., diameter, length, or area energy requirement, number) Encountered problems during using Superpro if there are any.

6 Design By Software EnviroPro – SuperPro Designer by Intelligent Inc. EnviroPro Designer is an environmental process simulator designed to enhance the productivity of engineers and scientists engaged in the design, development, and assessment of integrated water purification, wastewater treatment, and waste disposal processes. EnviroPro Designer is a valuable tool for environmental consulting engineers, process designers, and treatment/disposal plant engineers and managers. It enables the user to efficiently develop, assess, and optimize environmentally beneficial technologies. It provides under a single umbrella modeling of end-of-pipe treatment processes, project economic evaluation, and environmental impact assessment. Its VOC emission models (accepted by EPA) can be used to calculate emissions from treatment plants and track the fate of hazardous chemicals.

7 Design By Software Key Features of EnviroPro Designer: Models for over 70 operations. Material and energy balances. Equipment sizing and costing. Thorough process economics. Rigorous VOC emission calculations from treatment plants. Chemical component fate prediction. Extensive chemical component and mixture database. Extensive equipment and resource databases. Waste stream characterization. Environmental impact assessment. Intuitive graphical user interface. Advanced hypertext help facility. OLE-2 support. PFD customization through addition of your own graphics and text. Compatibility with a variety of graphics, spreadsheet, and word processing packages. Option to export PFDs in DXF format (for incorporation into AutoCAD) and in WMF format.

8 Unit Procedure Models in EnviroPro Designer Reaction Aerobic BioOxidation Plug Flow Aerobic BioOxidation … Incineration UV Radiation CSTR Batch Reaction Plug Flow Reaction Equilibrium Reaction Solid/Gas Separation Electrostatic Precipitator Baghouse Filter Gas Cyclone Solid/Liquid Separation Decanter Centrifuge Hydrocyclone Clarifier … Plate & Frame Filter Rotary Vacuum Filter Granular Media Filter Belt Filter Phase Separation Absorption Stripping Degasification Activated Carbon Adsorption Ion Exchange Decantation Pressure Change Pumps Compressors Fan/Blower Drying Sludge Dryer General Unit Ops Generic Boxes for Reaction and Separation … Heater/Cooler Heat Exchanger Tanks Various Storage Tanks Various Blending Tanks Equalization Tank Junction Box

9 Books Hava Kirliliği ve Kontrolünün Esasları, Ayşen Müezzinoğlu Air Pollution Engineering Manual, Wiley, Edited by Davis Boubel, Fox, Turner and Stern (1994) Fundemantals of Air Pollution, Academic Press Cooper and Alley (1994), Air Pollution Control: A Design Approach, Waveland Press

10 Related Journals Atmospheric Environment Atmospheric Pollution Research (APR), (http://www.atmospolres.com)http://www.atmospolres.com Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association Environmental Science and Technology Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry Tellus B Journal of Geophysical Research, part D

11 A Brief History of Air Pollution Comparing the air of cities to the air of deserts and arid lands is like comparing waters that are befouled and turbid to waters that are fine and pure. In the city, because of the height of its buildings, the narrowness of its streets, and all that pours forth from its inhabitansts and their superfluities… the air becomes stagnant, turbid thick misty and foggy, If there is no other choice in this matter for we have grown up in the cities and have become accustomed to them you should select from the cities one of open horizons endeavor at least to dwell at the outskirts of the city Moses Maimonides ( )

12 1660, Londra, John Evelyn

13

14 Perception of Air Pollution “A well-known European artist, who recently visited this country, has been quoted as saying that American cities would be more beautiful if there were more smoke to tone down the sharp outlines of the buildings and give a soft; pleasing gray. Evidently, says the American Machinist, his observations were not made in Chicago or Cincinnati or' Pittsburgh. Smoke may appeal to the ultra- artistic, but when it has been estimated that the smoke nuisance costs the American people nearly $50,000,000 every year, there seems to be another point from which to look at it.” A M E R I C A MAY 31, VOL. IX, No. 8.

15 Air Pollution Burning coal even in the summer time as solution to plague in 1665… Smoke and coal dusts were believed to be a good disinfection means according to a study made in People with tuberculosis used to send to mine regions Smoke as the indicator of the economic wealth (Clearing the air, Indur M. Goklany)

16 Much of our economic distress is because of the fact that there is not enough smoke in Pittsburgh... The metropolis that earned the sobriquet of the ”smoky city“ has not been living up to those vaporous laurels. (Will the Circle Be Unbroken: A History of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards, John Bachmann)

17 Air Pollution History in Turkey 1962’de AP milletvekili C. Ertuğ tarafından hazırlanan kanun teklifinde toz ve gazların bronşit, göz hastalıkları ve kansere neden olmaları nedeniyle kontrolü isteniyor. Önerilen maddeler kömürlü lokomotiflerin, büyük kamyon ve otobüslerin şehrin içinden geçmemesi, sanayi kuruluşlarının yerlerinin meteoroloji uzmanlarının da olduğu bir fenni heyet tarafından belirlenmesi, tesislerin (ocak, kazan, baca olanların) inşaatından önce ve sonra kontrolünü kapsıyor. 29: , Milliyet

18 Ankara 1969’da Makine Mühendisleri Odasının “Pis Havalı İller içinde Ankara 3.” başlığı ile çıkan haberde odanın çözüm önerilerinden bazıları: –Hava kalitesi ile mücadele kanunu –Elektrikle teshin, merkezi teshin –Tepelere büyük vantilatör kurmak ve çanak içine geniş dikey borular dikerek havaya hareket vermek –Ağaçlandırma ile cereyan sağlamak, trafiği hızlandırmak, soba cinslerini ıslah etmek –İyi kalite dumansız yakıt kullanmak… (Yumuturuğ, Prof. Dr. Sevim, Ankara Hava kirliliğinin 1968 senesindeki durumu )

19 Refik Erduran Milliyet Düpedüz Köşe Yazısı, Geçen gün Los Angeles’li bir mühendisle bu hava kirlenmesi konusunu görüşürken başkentimiz Ankara’nın dünyadaki en pis havalı şehirlerden biri olduğunu söyledim... Üzülmeyin dedi, havayı temizlemenin bir yolunu bulduk galiba. Ve anlattı: Los Angeles bu çeşit kirlilikte dünya şampiyonuymuş. Tepelerle çevrili kase biçiminde bir büyük çukurlukta bulunduğu ve yeryüzünün en otomobili bol bölgesinin merkezi olduğu için zehirli duman birikimi burada sık sık ciddi tehlike yaratıyormuş. Şimdiye kadar bu dersin çözümlenmesi yönünde devamlı araştırma yapılmış çeşitli teklifler iler sürülmüş. Zehirli dumanların dev vantilatörlerle üfürülmesi bile düşünülmüş. Hiçbirini uygulama imkanı yokmuş pratikte. (Üfürülen dumanlar rüzgar cilveleriyle dönüp tekrar şehrin üstüne çöreklenebiliyormuş. Gereken binlerce dev vantilatör ise hem paraca yıkımmış hem de harcayacakları elektrik için kurulacak dev santrallerin kullanacağı yakıt havayı büsbütün kirletirmiş. Şimdi bambaşka bir şey akıl etmişler: Banyoyu dolduran kirli suyun dipteki deliğin açılması ile akıp gidişi gibi şehir çukurluğundaki kirli havanın sokak mazgallarının içine emilerek kanalizasyon kanallarından bir büyük süzgeç merkezine toplanması, orada temizlendikten sonra tekrar yeryüzüne püskürtülmesi. Bunun için bazı mazgalların altlarına küçücük hava tulumbaları yerleştirilmesi yetiyor hem dünya atmosferinin kirletilmesi de böylece büsbütün önleniyormuş. Siz de aynı şeyi Ankara’da yapmayı düşünemez misiniz diye sordu Düşünemeyiz dedim Neden pek bir para istemiyor Paradan değil biz zaten hovarda milletizdir, masraftan çekinmeyiz… Öyleyse Ankara’da dediğim sistemi niçin kuramayasınız? Bunun için mazgalları kanalizasyon bağlamak gerek değil mi Evet Ankara kanalizasyon yok ki Havayı tehlikeli derece kirletecek kadar gelişmiş ülkesiniz ama başkentinizde kanalizasyon yok Öyle ….

20 Air Pollution Episodes LocationDatePollutantsSymptoms and Effects Meuse Valley, Belgium 1-5 Dec, 1930SO2 ( ppm) 63 Excess Death, chess pain, cough, eye and respiration problems, effective for all ages Poza Rica, Mexico Oct, 1948 H2S22 excess death, 320 hospitalized Londra5-9 Dec, 1952SO2, particulates 4000 excess death Newyork24-30 Nov, 1966 SO2, particulates 168 excess death

21 Concentrations of Trace Compounds in Ambient Atmosphere SpeciesClean Region (ppb)Polluted Region (ppb) SO CO NO NO O3O HNO NH HCHO (Formaldehit) HCOOH (Formic acid)1-10 HNO 2 (Nitrous acid) CH 3 C(O)O 2 NO 2 (Peroksiacetilnitrat, PAN) < NMHC (Non Methane Hydro Carbons) < Fine Particles PM2 <10  g/m 3 <  g/m 3


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