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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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... konulu sunumlar: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Sunum transkripti:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Konu 1 Canlılığın incelemesi

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biyoloji Nedir? Canlıları inceleyen bilim dalıdır Mikroskobik seviye Makroskobik seviye Küresel seviye Yapı,fonksiyon,büyüme,evrim,dağılım, taksonomi, filogeni, çeşitlilik

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biyolojik Organizasyon Düzeyleri Biyosforden - Organizmaya Figür Biyosfer 1 Ekosistem Komünite Populasyon Organizmaa

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organdan - Hücre - Moleküle Cell 8 Hücre 6 Organ 7 Doku 10 Moleküller 9 Organeller 50 µm 10 µm 1 µm Atoms Figür 1.4

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hücreye yakın bir bakış Hücre - yaşam için gerekli olan tüm aktivitelerin gerçekleştiği, biyolojik organizasyonun en küçük seviyesi 25 µm Figür 1.9

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hücre’nin iki önemli formu Tüm hücreler – Membran tarafından çevrilmiş – Genetik bilgi olarak DNA İki form hücre – Ökaryotik – Prokaryotik EUKARYOTIC CELL Membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Nucleus (contains DNA) 1 µm PROKARYOTIC CELL DNA (no nucleus) Membrane

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Yaşamın üç Domain’i Yaşam en üst seviyede 3 domain’den oluşur – Bakteri – Archaea – Eukarya Protista Bitki Mantar Hayvan Prokaryotik canlılar

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3 domain Figür µm 0.5 µm 4 µm Bacteria are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among multiple kingdoms. Each of the rod-shaped structures in this photo is a bacterial cell. Protists (multiple kingdoms) are unicellular eukaryotes and their relatively simple multicellular relatives.Pictured here is an assortment of protists inhabiting pond water. Scientists are currently debating how to split the protists into several kingdoms that better represent evolution and diversity. Kingdom Plantae consists of multicellula eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to food. Many of the prokaryotes known as archaea live in Earth‘s extreme environments, such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs. Domain Archaea includes multiple kingdoms. The photo shows a colony composed of many cells. Kindom Fungi is defined in part by the nutritional mode of its members, such as this mushroom, which absorb nutrientsafter decomposing organic material. Kindom Animalia consists of multicellular eukaryotes that ingest other organisms. DOMAIN ARCHAEA

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Konu 2 Canlıların kimyasal içeriği Element Bileşik

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Element Kimyasal tepkimelerle başka bileşiklere parçalanamayan maddelerdir 92 element Atomlar’dan oluşmuştur carbon C, hydrogen H, oxygen O ve nitrogen N bir organizmanın 96% oluşturan zorunlu elementlerdir

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Diğer elementler

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings İz element Çok az miktarda olsa da organizmaın ihtiyaç duyduğu element Fe ve Zn

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bileşik Belirli bir oranda bir araya gelen iki veya daha fazla element içeren madde NaCl (1:1), H 2 O (2:1) Elemetlerinden farklı karakterlere sahip SodiumChloride Sodium Chloride + Sodyum KlorSodyum klörürFigür 2.3

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Atom Maddenin en küçük parçası Her elementin belirli atom çeşidi var Nötron Proton Elektron ?

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Kimyasal Bağ Kovalent İyonik Zayıf Kimyasal Bağlar Hidrojen bağı kuvvetli

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Kovalent Bağ Name (molecular formula) Electron- shell diagram Structural formula Space- filling model (c) Methane (CH 4 ). Four hydrogen atoms can satisfy the valence of one carbon atom, forming methane. Water (H 2 O). Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are joined by covalent bonds to produce a molecule of water. (d) H O H HH H H C Figür 2.12

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Iyonik Bağ Atomlar arasında elektron transferi Cl – Chloride ion (an anion) – The lone valence electron of a sodium atom is transferred to join the 7 valence electrons of a chlorine atom. 1 Each resulting ion has a completed valence shell. An ionic bond can form between the oppositely charged ions. 2 Na Cl + Na Sodium atom (an uncharged atom) Cl Chlorine atom (an uncharged atom) Na + Sodium on (a cation) Sodium chloride (NaCl) Figür 2.15

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hidrojen Bağı (Zayıf) Water (H 2 O) Ammonia (NH 3 ) O H H  + +  – – N H H H A hydrogen bond results from the attraction between the partial positive charge on the hydrogen atom of water and the partial negative charge on the nitrogen atom of ammonia. ++ ++ Figür 2.16

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Konu 3 Biyolojik Moleküllerin yapısı

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 20 Makromoleküller – Küçük moleküllerden oluşan büyük moleküller – Yapısal olarak kompleks – Kovalent bağ Figür 5.1

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 21 Makromoleküller Çoğu Makromolekül monomerlerden oluşmuş polimerlerdir Dört önemli organik molekül (ilk 3 polimerdir) – Karbohidrat – Protein – Nucleik asid – Lipid

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 22 Polimer – Monomer olarak bilinen ve tekrarlanan birimlerin bir araya gelmesi – Her monomer kendine özgü polimeri oluşturur – Örn: amino acidler proteinlerin monomeri

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 23 Polimerlerin oluşumu ve parçalanması Monomerler dehidrasyon tepkimesi ile daha büyük molekülleri oluşturur H 2 O çıkışı Hidroksil (-OH) ve Hidrojen (-H) grubu Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HOH H H H2OH2O Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Figür 5.2a

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 24 Polimerlerin oluşumu ve parçalanması Polimerler monomerlerine ortama H 2 O ilavesi ile (Hidroliz) parçalanabilir -H bir monomere, -OH diğer monomere Hydrolysis of a polymer HO H H H2OH2O H Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Figür 5.2b

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 25 Karbohidratlar Şeker ve bunların polimerlerini (nişasta, selüloz) içerir Monosakkaritler en basit şeker İki mososakkarit+kovalent bağ= Disakkarit

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 26 Örnek monosakkaritler Triose sugars (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) Pentose sugars (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) Hexose sugars (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) H C OH HO C H H C OH HO C H H C OH C O H C OH HO C H H C OH C O H H H HHH H H HHH H H H C CCC O O O O Aldoses Glyceraldehyde Ribose Glucose Galactose Dihydroxyacetone Ribulose Ketoses Fructose Figür5.3

27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 27 Monosakkaritler – Doğrusal (linear) – Halkasal (ring) H H C OH HO C H H C OH H C O C H H OH 4C4C 6 CH 2 OH 5C5C H OH C H OH H 2 C 1C1C H O H OH 4C4C 5C5C 3 C H H OH OH H 2C2C 1 C OH H CH 2 OH H H OH HO H OH H (a) Linear and ring forms. Chemical equilibrium between the linear and ring structures greatly favors the formation of rings. To form the glucose ring, carbon 1 bonds to the oxygen attached to carbon 5. OH 3 O H O O 6 1 Figür 5.4

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 28 Disakkaritler – İki monosakkarit – Glikozidik bağ

29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 29 Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose. The bonding of two glucose units forms maltose. The glycosidic link joins the number 1 carbon of one glucose to the number 4 carbon of the second glucose. Joining the glucose monomers in a different way would result in a different disaccharide. Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose. Sucrose is a disaccharide formed from glucose and fructose. Notice that fructose, though a hexose like glucose, forms a five-sided ring. (a) (b) H HO H H OH H OH O H CH 2 OH H HOHO H HOHHOH H OHOH O H OHOH H O H H OH H OH O H CH 2 OH H H2OH2O H2OH2O H H O H HO H OH O H CH 2 OH HO OH H CH 2 OH HOHHOH H H HO OH H CH 2 OH HOHHOH H O O H OH H CH 2 OH HOHHOH H O H OH CH 2 OH H HO O CH 2 OH H H OH O O – 4 glycosidic linkage 1–2 glycosidic linkage Glucose Fructose Maltose Sucrose OH H H Figür 5.5 Maltoz &Sükroz

30 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 30 Polisakkaritler – Şeker polimeri – Organizmada çeşitli rol Depo polisakkaritleri Yapısal polisakkaritler

31 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 31 Depo polisakkaritleri Nişasta – Glikoz monomerlerinden oluşan polimer – Bitkilerde glikozun depo edilmesini sağlar – Plastid Chloroplast Starch Amylose Amylopectin 1  m (a) Starch: a plant polysaccharide Figure 5.6

32 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 32 Glikojen – Glikoz monomerlerini içerir – Hayvanlarda ana depo maddesi, dallanma Mitochondria Giycogen granules 0.5  m (b) Glycogen: an animal polysaccharide Glycogen Figure 5.6

33 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 33 Yapısal Polisakkaritler Selüloz – Glikoz polimeri – Bitki hücreleri – Nişastadan farkı?? (-OH) – Doğrusal, dallanmaz

34 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 34 Selüloz&Nişasta (c) Cellulose: 1– 4 linkage of  glucose monomers H O O CH 2 OH H OH H H H H HO 4 C C C C C C H H H OH H H O CH 2 OH H H H OH H H HO 4 OH CH 2 OH O OH HO 4 1 O CH 2 OH O OH O CH 2 OH O OH CH 2 OH O OH O O CH 2 OH O OH HO 4 O 1 OH O O CH 2 OH O OH O O (a)  and  glucose ring structures (b) Starch: 1– 4 linkage of  glucose monomers 1  glucose  glucose CH 2 OH Figure 5.7 A–C

35 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 35 Plant cells 0.5  m Cell walls Cellulose microfibrils in a plant cell wall  Microfibril CH 2 OH OH OHOH O O O CH 2 OH O O OH O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH O O OHOH O O OHOH O O OH CH 2 OHOH O O CH 2 OH OH O CH 2 OH O O OHCH 2 OH OH  Glucose monomer O O O O O O Parallel cellulose molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl groups attached to carbon atoms 3 and 6. About 80 cellulose molecules associate to form a microfibril, the main architectural unit of the plant cell wall. A cellulose molecule is an unbranched  glucose polymer. OH O O Cellulose molecules Figure 5.8 Bitki hücre duvarında dayanıklılığı sağlayan yapı

36 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 36 Selülozu sindirmek zordur – İnek’lerin midelerinde bu işlemi kolaylaştıracak mikroplar bulunur Figure 5.9

37 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 37 Kitin (diğer önemli polisakkarit) – Eklem bacaklıların dış iskeleti – Ameliyat ipi – Azot yan grubu (a) The structure of the chitin monomer. O CH 2 O H OH H H H NH C CH 3 O H H (b) Chitin forms the exoskeleton of arthropods. This cicada is molting, shedding its old exoskeleton and emerging in adult form. (c) Chitin is used to make a strong and flexible surgical thread that decomposes after the wound or incision heals. OH Figure 5.9 A–C

38 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 38 Lipidler Hidrofobik Polimer içermeyen büyük biyolojik molekül Yağ Fosfolipit Steroid

39 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 39 Yağlar – İki tip küçük molekül, bir gliserol ve genelde üç yağ asidi – Ester bağı

40 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 40 Doymuş yağ asitleri – mümkün olan maksimum hidrojen – çift bağ yok (a) Saturated fat and fatty acid Stearic acid Figure 5.11

41 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 41 Doymamış yağ asidi – Bir veya birden fazla çift bağ – Çift bağ olan herbir karbonda bir hidrojen eksik (b) Unsaturated fat and fatty acid cis double bond causes bending Oleic acid Figure 5.11

42 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 42 Fosfolipidler – Sadece iki yağ asidi – Üçüncü yağ asidi yerine fosfat bulunur

43 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 43 Fosfolipitlerin yapısı – Sulu ortamda oluşan hücre membranındaki çift tabakalı yapı Hydrophilic head WATER Hydrophobic tail Figür 5.13

44 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 44 Steroidler Birbirleriyle kaynaşmış dört adet halka içeren karbon iskeleti – Kolestrol – Eşey hormonları

45 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 45 Kolestrol – hücre membranında bulunur – bazı hormonların öncüsüdür HO CH 3 H3CH3C Figür 5.14

46 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 46 Proteinler Proteinler çeşitli fonksiyonlara neden olan farklı yapılara sahiptir Enzim Hücrelerde çeşitli görev Monomer; amino asit

47 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 47 Protein görevlerine genel bakış

48 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 48 Enzimler – Katalist (kimysal reaksiyonları hızlandırıcı) olarak görev yapan proteinler Substrate (sucrose) Enzyme (sucrase) Glucose OH H O H2OH2O Fructose 3 Substrate is converted to products. 1 Active site is available for a molecule of substrate, the reactant on which the enzyme acts. Substrate binds to enzyme Products are released. Figure 5.15

49 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 49 Polipeptid – a.a oluşmuş polimer (zincir) protein – Bir veya birden fazla polipeptid içerebilir

50 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 50 Amino acid – Karboksil (C terminal) ve amino (N terminal) grupları içeren organik molekül – R grup (yan zincir) farklı a.a.’leri oluşturur

51 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 51 Yirmi Amino Asid 20 different amino acids make up proteins O O–O– H H3N+H3N+ C C O O–O– H CH 3 H3N+H3N+ C H C O O–O– C C O O–O– H H3N+H3N+ CH CH 3 CH 2 C H H3N+H3N+ CH 3 CH 2 CH C H H3N+H3N+ C CH 3 CH 2 C H3N+H3N+ H C O O–O– C H3N+H3N+ H C O O–O– NH H C O O–O– H3N+H3N+ C CH 2 H2CH2C H2NH2N C H C Nonpolar Glycine (Gly) Alanine (Ala) Valine (Val)Leucine (Leu)Isoleucine (Ile) Methionine (Met) Phenylalanine (Phe) C O O–O– Tryptophan (Trp) Proline (Pro) H3CH3C Figure 5.16 S O O–O–

52 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 52

53 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 53 Amino Asid Polimerleri Amino asidler – Peptid bağlarıyla bağlanırlar

54 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 54 Protein konformasyonu ve Fonksiyonu Bir protein’in spesifik konformasyonu (şekil) onun ne işe yarayacığına (fonksiyon) karar verir

55 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 55 Protein yapısındaki dört seviye Birincil yapı (Primary structure) – a.a.’lerin polipeptid yapısında oluşturduğu eşsiz (spesifik) düzenlenme Figure 5.20 – Amino acid subunits + H 3 N Amino end o Carboxyl end o c Gly ProThr Gly Thr Gly Glu Seu Lys Cys Pro Leu Met Val Lys Val Leu Asp Ala Val Arg Gly Ser Pro Ala Gly lle Ser Pro Phe His Glu His Ala Glu Val Phe Thr Ala Asn Asp Ser Gly Pro Arg Tyr Thr lle Ala Leu Ser Pro Tyr Ser Tyr Ser Thr Ala Val Thr Asn Pro Lys Glu Thr Lys Ser Tyr Trp Lys Ala Leu Glu Lle Asp

56 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 56 O C  helix  pleated sheet Amino acid subunits N C H C O C N H C O H R C N H C O H C R N H H R C O R C H N H C O H N C O R C H N H H C R C O C O C N H H R C C O N H H C R C O N H R C H C O N H H C R C O N H R C H C O N H H C R C O N H H C R N H O O C N C R C H O C H R N H O C R C H N H O C H C R N H C C N R H O C H C R N H O C R C H H C R N H C O C N H R C H C O N H C İkincil yapı (Secondary structure) – Polipeptid’de tekrar eden katlanma yada kıvrılmalar –  helix ve  pilili tabaka H H Figure 5.20

57 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 57 Üçüncül yapı (Tertiary structure) – Polipeptidin üç boyutlu yapısı – a.a’lerin ve R gruplarının etkileşimi CH 2 CH OHOH O C HO CH 2 NH 3 + C -O-O CH 2 O SS CH CH 3 H3CH3C H3CH3C Hydrophobic interactions and van der Waals interactions Polypeptide backbone Hyrdogen bond Ionic bond CH 2 Disulfide bridge

58 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 58 Dördüncül yapı (Quaternary structure) – Proteini oluşturan iki veya daha fazla polipeptid’in oluşturduğu yapı Polypeptide chain Collagen  Chains  Chains Hemoglobin Iron Heme

59 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 59 Protein yapısına genel bakış + H 3 N Amino end Amino acid subunits  helix

60 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 60 Orak-hücre hastalığı: proteinin birincil yapısında olan basit bir değişim Orak-hücre hastalığı – Hemoglabin proteininde bulunan bir a.a’in değişimi

61 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 61 Fibers of abnormal hemoglobin deform cell into sickle shape. Primary structure Secondary and tertiary structures Quaternary structure Function Red blood cell shape Hemoglobin A Molecules do not associate with one another, each carries oxygen. Normal cells are full of individual hemoglobin molecules, each carrying oxygen     10  m     Primary structure Secondary and tertiary structures Quaternary structure Function Red blood cell shape Hemoglobin S Molecules interact with one another to crystallize into a fiber, capacity to carry oxygen is greatly reduced.  subunit Normal hemoglobinSickle-cell hemoglobin... Figure 5.21 Exposed hydrophobic region ValThrHisLeuProGlulGluValHisLeu Thr Pro Val Glu

62 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 62 Protein konformasyunu etkileyen faktörler Proteinin bulunduğu fiziksel ve kimyasal çevrenin durumu sıcaklık, pH, tuz (denatürasyon)

63 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 63 Denatürasyon; potein’in doğal yapısını kaybetmesi Denaturation Renaturation Denatured proteinNormal protein Figure 5.22

64 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 64 Protein-katlanma Problemleri Çoğu proteinler – Kararlı yapıya ulaşmadan önce birkaç ara basamaktan geçerler – Denatüre olmuş protein aktif olarak görev yapamaz – Sıcaklık ve pH’ta ani değişimler denatürasyona sebeb olur

65 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 65 Şaperoninler Proteinlerin düzgün katlanması için gerekli olan protein molekülleri Hollow cylinder Cap Chaperonin (fully assembled) Steps of Chaperonin Action: An unfolded poly- peptide enters the cylinder from one end. The cap attaches, causing the cylinder to change shape in such a way that it creates a hydrophilic environment for the folding of the polypeptide. The cap comes off, and the properly folded protein is released. Correctly folded protein Polypeptide Figure 5.23

66 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 66 Nucleik Asid Nucleik acidler kalıtımsal bilgiyi taşır ve transfer eder Gen – Kalıtımsal yapının ana ünitesi – Polipeptidlerdeki a.a’leri belirler – Nükleik asitlerden oluşur

67 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 67 Nukleik Asidlerin rolü İki nükleik asit – Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

68 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 68 Deoksiribonükleik asid DNA – Genetik materyal – Kendini replike edebilir – Spesif proteinlerin sentezi için gerekli bilgileri taşır (RNA sentezi) – Hücrelerin çekirdeğinde

69 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 69 DNA görevleri – RNA sentezi (transkripsiyon) – RNA’dan protein sentezi (translasyon) Synthesis of mRNA in the nucleus Movement of mRNA into cytoplasm via nuclear pore Synthesis of protein NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM DNA mRNA Ribosome Amino acids Polypeptide mRNA Figure 5.25

70 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 70 Nucleik Acid yapısı Nucleic acid – Polinükleotid denilen polimerler halinde bulunur (a) Polynucleotide, or nucleic acid 3’C 5’ end 5’C 3’C 5’C 3’ end OH Figure 5.26 O O O O

71 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 71 nükleotid – Polinükleotid monomeri – Şeker + fosfat + azot içeren baz – Fosfodiester bağı Nitrogenous base Nucleoside O O OO OO P CH 2 5’C 3’C Phosphate group Pentose sugar (b) Nucleotide Figure 5.26 O

72 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 72 Nükleozid ( c) Nükleozid kısımları Figure 5.26 CH Uracil (in RNA) U Ribose (in RNA) Nitrogenous bases Pyrimidines C N N C O H NH 2 CH O C N H HN C O C CH 3 N HN C C H O O Cytosine C Thymine (in DNA) T N HC N C C N C CH N NH 2 O N HC N H H C C N NH C NH 2 Adenine A Guanine G Purines O HOCH 2 H H H OH H O HOCH 2 H H H OH H Pentose sugars Deoxyribose (in DNA) Ribose (in RNA) OH CH Uracil (in RNA) U 4’ 5”5” 3’ OH H 2’ 1’ 5”5” 4’ 3’ 2’ 1’ Fosfat içermeyen nükleotid kısmıdır

73 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 73 Nükleotid Polimerleri Nükleotid polimerleri – bir nükleotidin (şekerinin) 3´ karbonundaki -OH ile diğer nükleotidin 5´ karbonunda bulunan fosfat arasında oluşan fosfodiester bağı ile bağlanan nukleotidler

74 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 74 DNA double helix (çift sarmal) – iki antiparalel nükleotid dizisi 3’ end Sugar-phosphate backbone Base pair (joined by hydrogen bonding) Old strands Nucleotide about to be added to a new strand A 3’ end 5’ end New strands 3’ end 5’ end Figure 5.27

75 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings


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