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Bilgisayarlı müzik Sesin analog yapısı, Sesin band genişliği, Müzik sesi frekanslarının tanımlanması, Wave ses dosyası özellikleri, Musical Instrument.

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... konulu sunumlar: "Bilgisayarlı müzik Sesin analog yapısı, Sesin band genişliği, Müzik sesi frekanslarının tanımlanması, Wave ses dosyası özellikleri, Musical Instrument."— Sunum transkripti:

1 Bilgisayarlı müzik Sesin analog yapısı, Sesin band genişliği, Müzik sesi frekanslarının tanımlanması, Wave ses dosyası özellikleri, Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) tanımları, Bilgisayarda ses üretimi, MIDI sequencer ve editor özellikleri, MIDI file yapısı, MIDI file üretimi, Müzik sesi sentezleme yöntemleri

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3 University Courses at Cornell MUSIC Hip Hop: Beats, Rhymes and Life (crosslisted)

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5 Cubase SX 7

6 ftp://muhogr:muh948@ftp.iticu.edu.tr/

7 Başarı Değerlendirme Ölçütleri 2013
Vize sınavı %20 (8-12 Nisan 2013 arasında) Ödev 1 %10 (2-3 Nisan 2013) Hex editor ile wave dosya incelenmesi Ödev 2 %10 ( Mayıs 2013) Midi file yapısı ve Cubase programının uygulaması Kısa sınav 1 %5 ( Mart 2013) Kısa sınav 2 %5 ( Mayıs 2013) Final sınavı %50 (3 – 14 Haziran 2013) Derse %70 devam, her ders denetlenecektir. Ödev formatı : kapak sayfası + 5…10 sayfa konu + 1 sayfa sizin kendi yorumunuz Ödev sayfaları dosya içine yada poşet içine konulmadan sadece sol orta kenardan 2 adet tel zımba ile birleştirilecektir. Gecikmelerde -%1/gün uygulanacaktır.

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10 Müzik Sürekli frekans değişimi Tanımlı frekanslar Doğal ses cisimlerin titreşimi, zil, düdük, piyano Ritm Zaman boyunca değişimler Ses titreşim Elektronik ses Elektriksel işaretin HP ‘de sese dönüşmesi Sanat Fizik Elektronik Bilgisayar

11 MÜZİK FİZİĞİ Taylan Şengül I. Sesin Oluşumu ve Özellikleri 1.1. Ses Nedir? Bir müzik notası ve genel olarak herhangi bir ses bir kaynaktan doğar, iletici bir ortam (genellikle hava) içerisinde yayılır ve bir alıcı (bir kulak veya bir mikrofon) tarafından algılanır. Bu yüzden kaynak, iletici ortam ve alıcı, akustik biliminin (müzik fiziği) üç temel öğesini oluşturur. Öncelikle ses nedir? Sesten bahsederken, genelde havada dolaşan ve insan kulağı tarafından algılanabilen mekanik titreşimlerden bahsederiz. Bilim insanları, “sesin”, insan kulağı tarafından duyulmayacak kadar yüksek ve alçak frekanslara sahip olabilen ve gaz, sıvı ve katı olmak üzere her türlü maddi ortamda yayılabilen daha kapsamlı bir tanımını kullanırlar. İster bir klarnetin sesi, ister çırpılan bir el sesi olsun, sesler her zaman bir kaynağın titreşimi sonucu oluşur. Çoğu zaman bu titreşimi fark etmek kolay değildir, özellikle el çırpması gibi sesin kısa ve keskin çıktığı durumlarda.

12 Giriş :P1 Çıkış :P2 dB(0.775 VRMS)
voltage relative to volts. (1mW) dB (sound pressure level) for sound in air and other gases, relative to 20 micropascals (μPa) = 2×10−5 Pa

13 This hearing test measures PHON

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17 Types of Microphones There are three main types of microphones:
Dynamic/Moving Coil 2) Ribbon 3) Condenser/Capacitor Shure SM 57 Beyer M 160 Types of Microphones Audio Technica AT 4033

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22 Kare dalganın harmonikleri ve sentezi
Fourier sentezi Kare dalganın harmonikleri ve sentezi

23 DALGA ŞEKLİ ANALİZİ MIXED-FREQUENCY AC SIGNALS

24 Signal Generator Spectrum Analyser

25 WavePad Sound Editor

26 "ADSR" (Attack Decay Sustain Release) envelope

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29 DTMF (dual-tone, multi-frequency) system

30 There are three major groups of audio file formats:
Uncompressed audio formats, such as WAV, AIFF, AU or raw header-less PCM; Formats with lossless compression, such as FLAC, Monkey's Audio (filename extension APE), WavPack (filename extension WV), TTA, ATRAC Advanced Lossless, Apple Lossless (filename extension m4a), MPEG-4 SLS, MPEG-4 ALS, MPEG-4 DST, Windows Media Audio Lossless (WMA Lossless), and Shorten (SHN). Formats with lossy compression, such as MP3, Vorbis, Musepack, AAC, ATRAC and Windows Media Audio Lossy (WMA lossy)). Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics https://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/ https://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/120/lectures/02/tutorial.html Fundamentals of Computer-Generated Sound

31 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

32 WAVE PCM soundfile format
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/422/projects/WaveFormat/

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34 Nota süreleri Metronome Beat Per Minute (BPM)

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37 Musical Clefs

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39 1,0535

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42 Bağlama Üzerinde Nota Yerleri

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47 ENVELOPE FOURIER SYNTHESIS The shape of a sound's AMPLITUDE in time. Graphical representation of the envelope of a sound object may show distinctive features in its ATTACK or onset TRANSIENTs, STATIONARY STATE, INTERNAL DYNAMICS and DECAY.

48 VIBRATO A periodic fluctuation or OSCILLATION in the FREQUENCY of a tone, thereby being a type of FREQUENCY MODULATION. It is also usually accompanied by a pulsation of intensity which affects the TIMBRE or colour of the tone. Instrumentalists and singers use the effect to enrich their tone, and usually regulate the speed of the vibrato to the range of seven cycles per second. TREMOLO A periodic fluctuation or OSCILLATION in the AMPLITUDE of a tone, thereby being a type of AMPLITUDE MODULATION, and a limited version of a VIBRATO. It is used in various forms by instrumentalists but the optimum speed is usually regarded as being seven cycles per second. Tremolo is often heard with the vibraphone and certain types of electronic organ sounds

49 MIDI (Musical Instrument
Digital Interface)

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52 http://hyperphysics. phy-astr. gsu. edu/hbase/electronic/serial

53 M-Audio UNO MIDI Interface with One In/Out (USB)
+5V M-Audio UNO MIDI Interface with One In/Out (USB) +5V +5V

54 1 start bit 5-8 data bits 1-2 stop bits optional parity bit
MIDI vs RS232 RS-232 MIDI Frame Format 1 start bit 5-8 data bits 1-2 stop bits optional parity bit 1 start bit 8 data bits 1 stop bits no parity Baud Rate up to 20k standard rates of 300, 600,...19k2 extended rates of 38k4, 57k6, 115k2 31250 baud +/- 1% Driver (loaded) Voltage: Logic 0: +5V to +15V Logic 1: -5V to -15V Current: Logic 0: 5mA Logic 1: 0mA Driver (open circuit) +/- 25V maximum Unspecified Driver (short circuit) +/- 100mA maximum Receiver Load 3k to 7k ohm Opto-isolator (otherwise unspecified) Receiver Sensitivity +/- 3V < 5 mA to turn 'on' Receiver input range +/- 3V to +/-15V Signal rise/fall speed Maximum Minimum 30V/us (max) slew-rate Unspecified Unspecified 2 us (max) rise/fall times Maximum cable 2500pF (approx. 15m) 15m Isolation Opto-isolator on receiver circuit Handshaking signals Transmitter: RTS, DTR Receiver: CTS, DSR, DCD, RI None Physical connector D25 5-pin DIN (180 degree)

55 The table below presents a summary of the MIDI Channel Voice Message codes in binary form. A MIDI channel voice message consists of a status Byte followed by one or two data Bytes. Click here for a list of currently assigned MIDI controller numbers. Status Byte Data Byte 1 Data Byte 2 Message Legend 1000nnnn 0kkkkkkk 0vvvvvvv Note Off n=channel* k=key # 0-127(60=middle C) v=velocity (0-127) 1001nnnn Note On n=channel k=key # 0-127(60=middle C) v=velocity (0-127) 1010nnnn 0ppppppp Poly Key Pressure n=channel k=key # 0-127(60=middle C) p=pressure (0-127) 1011nnnn 0ccccccc Controller Change n=channel c=controller v=controller value (0-127) 1100nnnn [none] Program Change n=channel p=preset number (0-127) 1101nnnn Channel Pressure n=channel p=pressure (0-127) 1110nnnn 0fffffff Pitch Bend n=channel c=coarse f=fine (c+f = 14-bit resolution)

56 MIDI Data Format The majority of MIDI communication consists of multi-byte packets beginning with a status byte followed by one or two data bytes .Bytes are packets of 8 bits (0's or 1's). Status bytes begin with a '1' e.g. 1xxx xxxx--this is call 'set.' Data bytes begin with a '0' e.g. 0xxx xxxx--this is called 'reset.' Each byte is surrounded by a start bit and a stop bit, making each packet 10 bits long. Messages fall into the following five formats: Channel Voice Control the instrument's 16 voices (timbres, patches), plays notes, sends controller data, etc. Channel Mode Define instrument's response to Voice messages, sent over instrument's 'basic' channel System Common Messages intended to all networked instruments and devices System Real-Time Intended for all networked instruments and devices. Contain only status bytes and is used for syncronization of all devices. essentially a timing clock System Exclusive Originally used for manufacturer-specific codes, such as editor/librarians, has been expanded to include MIDI Time Code, MIDI Sample Dump Standard and MIDI Machine Control

57 MIDI serial data flows at the rate of 31
MIDI serial data flows at the rate of kilobits per second and is organised into 10-bit words. The first bit is called the START bit ( which is always 0 ), the next eight are the desired information, and the last is the STOP bit ( which is always 1 ). The start and stop bits frame the desired data and provide the required synchronization but do not carry MIDI information themselves.

58 http://www. csie. ntu. edu. tw/~r92092/ref/midi/midi_channel_voice
MIDI Channel Voice Messages

59 http://www. electronics. dit

60 Examinations: Music Technology Winter 2005

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62 Methods of Synthesis Jeff Pressing in "Synthesizer Performance and Real-Time Techniques" gives this list of approaches to sound synthesis. additive synthesis - combining tones, typically harmonics of varying amplitudes subtractive synthesis - filtering of complex sounds to shape harmonic spectrum, typically starting with geometric waves. frequency modulation synthesis - modulating a carrier wave with one or more operators sampling - using recorded sounds as sound sources subject to modification composite synthesis - using artificial and sampled sounds to establish resultant "new" sound phase distortion - altering speed of waveforms stored in wavetables during playback waveshaping - intentional distortion of a signal to produce a modified result resynthesis - modification of digitally sampled sounds before playback granular synthesis - combining of several small sound segments into a new sound linear predictive coding - technique for speech synthesis direct digital synthesis - computer modification of generated waveforms wave sequencing - linear combinations of severtal small segments to create a new sound vector synthesis - technique for fading between any number of different sound sources physical modeling - mathematical equations of acoustic characteristics of sound

63 ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS There are a number of different technologies or algorithms used to create sounds in music synthesizers. Three widely used techniques are Subtractive synthesis, Frequency Modulation (FM) synthesis and Wavetable synthesis.

64 Basic components of an analogue subtractive synthesizer

65 Additive synthesis was utilized as early as on Hammond organ in 1930s.

66 Subtractive synthesis is still utilized on various synths, including virtual analog synth.

67 M synthesis was huge successful as earliest digital synthesizers.
FM synthesis using 2 operators

68 http://support. fender

69 Copyright © Cirrus Logic, Inc. 2005
CS dB, 192 kHz, Multi-Bit Audio A/D Converter

70 Low-cost Keyboard Instrument
ATSAM2133B Low-power Synthesizer with Effects and Built-in RAM

71 DSPB56367PV150 Freescale Semiconductor / Motorola DSP, DSP56300 Family,Enhanced Dual Harvard Architecture,150MIPS

72 ATSAM2133B Features • Single-chip Synthesizer + Effects, Features include – High-quality Wavetable Synthesis, Serial MIDI In & Out, MPU-401 (UART) – Effects: Reverb + Chorus, on MIDI and/or Audio In – Up to 64-voice Polyphony – Surround on Two or Four Speakers with Intensity/Delay Control – Four-band Parametric Equalizer – Audio-in Processing through Reverb, Chorus, Equalizer, Surround • Low Chip Count in Applications – ATSAM2133B Synthesizer, ROM/Flash, DAC – Built-in (32K x 16) Effects RAM • Low-power – 40 mA Typical Operating Current, <1 μA Power-down – 2.5V and 3.3V Supply – Built-in Power Switch • 16-bit Samples, 44.1 KHz Sampling Rate, 24 dB Digital Filter per Voice • Available Wavetable Firmwares and Sample Sets – CleanWave8® Low-cost General MIDI 1-MB Firmware + Sample Set – CleanWave32® Top-quality 4-MB Firmware + Sample Set – Other Sample Sets Available under special conditions • Built-in ROM Debugger, Flash Programmer through Dedicated Pins

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79 GENELDE MAKAM VE MAKAMIN KURULUŞU
GENELDE MAKAM VE MAKAMIN KURULUŞU Türk Mûsikîsinde Aralıklar 1) Sistemci Okul (Urmevî-Merâgî Sistemi) A) Safiyüddin Urmevî'de Aralıklar a) Küçük Aralıklar b) Büyük Aralıklar ve Cinsler B) Abdülkadir Merâgî'de Aralıklar a) Küçük Aralıklar b) Büyük Aralıklar ve Cinsler C) Sistemci Okulda Aralıklar a) Ana Makamlar b) Âvâzeler c) Şubeler d) Kantemiroğlu 'nda Makam ve Terkibat e) ... Kaynak:


"Bilgisayarlı müzik Sesin analog yapısı, Sesin band genişliği, Müzik sesi frekanslarının tanımlanması, Wave ses dosyası özellikleri, Musical Instrument." indir ppt

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