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Conjunctions and Discourse Connectives I Additive, Expansive, Conditional, and Inferential 1.

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... konulu sunumlar: "Conjunctions and Discourse Connectives I Additive, Expansive, Conditional, and Inferential 1."— Sunum transkripti:

1 Conjunctions and Discourse Connectives I Additive, Expansive, Conditional, and Inferential 1

2 Additive Üstüne does not merely conjoin two sentences. It also draws attention to the speaker’s conscious decision to add something to what has just been said. It is often combined with clitic dA. İki porsiyon kebabın üstüne bir porsiyon da köfte yemiş. (He ate one portion of kofte on top of two portions of kebab. Ayrıca emphasizes a situation that is fulfilled in addition to another fulfilled situation towards one goal. Defilenin bütün hazırlıkları tamamlandı. Ayrıca basına da haber verildi. (All the preparations for the fashion show are completed. Additionally, the press has been informed.) Kaldı ki occurs in negative sentences. It emphasizes the negativity expressed previously by addressing a situation or a fact that is impossible to be fulfilled. Murat ödevlerini zar zor yetiştirebiliyor. Kaldi ki fazladan hikaye, kitap okusun. ( 2

3 Additive (continued) Hatta or dahası introduce a statement that reinforces the previous statement. It usually makes it even more convincing. Toplantıda konuşulacak konuların listesini hazırladım. Hatta listeyi konuşmacılara da gönderdim. (I have prepared the list of topics to be covered at the meeting. I also sent the list to the speakers.) Bu tencere takımını yarı fiyatına aldım. Dahası kutudan bir de hediye tava çıktı. (I bought this pot set for the half price. There was even a complimentary pan in the box.) Bir yana bırakın occurs in negative sentences. It reinforces the comparison with the negativity of another situation regarded as inherently more realizable. Bu bilgisayarı aldığıma gerçekten pişmanım. CD sürücüsünü bir yana bırakın, bilgisayarın gerçek bir hafıza kartı girişi bile yok. (I really regret buying this computer. It does not even have a real memory card port, let alone a CD driver.) 3

4 Expansive Yok.., yok: Reduplicating yok is an informal way of listing items. It expresses frustration with a particular situation. Each item listed after yok is perceived to be an untenable excuse or unrealistic wish. Yok yeni bir seye ihtiyaci yokmus, yok kim o kadar uzaga sadece alisveris yapmaya giderm is, belli ki Sevim bizimle gelmek istemiyor. (Either she doesn’t need anything new or who wants to go that far only for shopping. It is obvious to me that Sevim does not want to go shopping with us.) Başka bir deyişle introduces a phrase, clause or sentence in which the speaker reformulates his/her message in a different way. It is used in formal contexts. It is similar to the English phrase “in other words.” İstanbul, başka bir deyişle Yedi Tepeli Şehir, yağmurlu bir ilkbahar sabahı gözüme daha güzel göründü. (Istanbul, in other words The City on Seven Hills, looked better to me on a rainy spring day.) 4

5 Expansive (continued) Yani, just like başka bir deyişle, introduces a phrase, clause or sentence in which the speaker reformulates his/her message in a different way. It is used in informal contexts. It is similar to the English phrase “I mean.” Bu kitapları bir sahaf, yani ikinci el kitap satan bir kişi, tavsiye etti. (A sahaf, I mean a person who sells second hand books, recommended these books to me.) Daha doğrusu has a corrective function. It is used when the speaker wants to reformulate a phrase, clause or sentence he/she just uttered. The speaker wants the hearer to disregard all or part of what was just said, and take the new expression as it is. It is similar to “or rather” in English. New York’tan İstanbul’a uçakla gitmek on saat sürüyor. Daha doğrusu aktarma yapmadan gidersen sekiz saat sürüyor. (It takes ten hours to get to Istanbul from New York. Better put, it takes eight hours only if you get on a direct flight.) 5

6 Expansive (continued) Bir kere is, like “for one thing” or for another thing” expressions, introduces which expand on the speaker’s previous statement in terms of providing justification for the attitude or opinion expressed. Aldığımız malzemeler hiçbir işe yaramayacak. Bir kere yağlı boya resim dersi için pastel boya kullanamayız. (The tools we got won’t work. First of all, we can’t use crayons for the oil painting class.) 6

7 Expansives (continued) Aksine, tersine, and bilakis carry the same meaning that is similar to the meaning expressed by “on the contrary” in English. Their function is to introduce a statement that elaborates on the statement that is previously expressed, which is always negative. While these all three conjunctions/discourse connectives play the same role in discourse, bilakis is less commonly used in daily language. Para biriktirmek istiyorsanız gereksiz harcamalarınızı arttırmamalısınız. Aksine gerekmedikçe alışveriş bile yapmamalısınız. (You need to not increase your expenses if you want to save money. Instead, you shouldn’t even shop if you don’t really need anything.) Biz ona evi nil yeşiline boyamasını söyledik. Tersine o gitti buz mavisi boya aldı. (We told him to paint the house in Nile Green color. Instead, he went and got Ice Blue paint. İstanbul’a giderseniz sıkılmaya vaktiniz olmayacak. Bilakis, belki de gezip görmek- ten yorgun düşeceksiniz. (You will not have the time to get bored, if you go to Istanbul. On the contrary, you may even get too tired from sightseeing.) 7

8 Conditionals O hâlde or öyleyse are conditionals that have similar function to the English “in that case” or “then.” They treat the content of the previous statement as knowable, which is assumed to be fulfilled. Although there is no clear distinction, o hâlde occurs in formal discourse more than öyleyse. Gazeteye göre toplu taşıma araçları bayram süresince indirimli olacakmış. O hâlde biz de Mecidiyeköy’e giderken otobüse bineriz. (According to the newspaper public transportation is going to be free of charge during the holiday. In that case/then we can take the bus when we go to Mecidiyeköy.) Toplu taşıma araçları bayram süresince indirimli olacakmış. Öyleyse biz de Mecidiyeköy’e giderken otobüse bineriz. (According to the newspaper public transportation is going to be free of charge during the holiday. In that case/then we can take the bus when we go to Mecidiyeköy.) 8

9 Conditionals (continued) Aksi takdirde/hâlde are similar to English “otherwise.” They treat the relation between the two sentences as a predictive conditional. The part after aksi takdirde/hâlde predicts what the consequences would be if the if what has just been said is not fulfilled. These connectives tend to occur both in formal and informal contexts. Yola erkenden çıkalım. Aksi takdirde akşam trafiğine yakalanırız.(Let’s get on the road early. Otherwise we will get caught in rush hour traffic in the evening.) Yola erkenden çıkalım. Aksi hâlde akşam trafiğine yakalanırız.(Let’s get on the road early. Otherwise we will get caught in rush hour traffic in the evening.) Yoksa has the same function as aksi takdirde/hâlde. However, it only occurs in informal contexts. Yola erkenden çıkalım. Yoksa akşam trafiğine yakalanırız. (Let’s get on the road early. Otherwise we will get caught in rush hour traffic in the evening.) 9

10 Conditionals (continued) Nasılsa, nasıl olsa, and zaten are similar to the English conditionals “in any case” and “anyway.” These items are always stressed when they are used in a sentence. Nasılsa Peyami Safa’nın romanlarının hepsini okudum. Sınavda Peyami Safa romanlarıyla ilgili soruları kolayca cevaplayabilirim. (I have already read all of Peyami Safa’s novels. I can easily answer any question about his novels on the exam.) Nasıl olsa Peyami Safa’nin romanlarının hepsini okudum. Sınavda Peyami Safa romanlarıyla ilgili soruları kolayca cevaplayabilirim. (I have already read all of Peyami Safa’s novels. I can easily answer any question about his novels on the exam.) Angela’nin Külleri romanını zaten okumuştum. Bir de filmini izlememe gerek yok. (I have already read the novel “Angela’s Ashes.” I don’t really need to watch the movie.) 10

11 Inferential Demek ki is similar to the English connective “that means” or “so.” Either it stands at the beginning or the end of the sentence in which it is located. It indicates that this sentence expresses an inference drawn from what has been said previously. Ali okula bugün de gelmedi. Demek ki hâlâ gripten yatıyor. (Ali didn’t come to school today, either. That means he hasn’t recovered from flu.) 11

12 This grammar point was prepared by Mukaddes Sahin after Goksel, A. & Kerslake, C. (2011). Turkish: An essential grammar. New York, NY: Routledge. A Deep Approach to Turkish Teaching and Learning Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison © M. Sahin


"Conjunctions and Discourse Connectives I Additive, Expansive, Conditional, and Inferential 1." indir ppt

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