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1“MERCHANT” Dr. Özlem Döğerlioğlu IŞIKSUNGUR Yasar Univesity- Lecture Notes Spring 2012
2CONCEPT of “merchant” Regulated in Article 11-23 of NTCC Merchants: Real (natural) personsLegal personIn NTCC, “merchant” concept regulated seperately from the point of “real person” and “legal person”
3REAL (NATURAL)PERSONS MERCHANTDefinition: Person who operates a commercial enterprise, at least in part,under his name.Elements:Existence of a commercial enterpriseOperation of the commercial enterprise, at least in partOperation of the commercial enterprise, at least in part, under the name of the person concernedCommercial companiesAssociations & Foundations which operate commercial enterprise to achieve their targetsEntities which are formed by State, Private Provincial Administration, Municipality, Village and other public corporations to be operated in a commercial manner or pursuant to their statutes of foundation to be managed according to private lawREAL (NATURAL)PERSONSLEGAL PERSONS
4REAL PERSON merchant-DEFINITION Definition: (Article 12.1 NTCC)The person who operates a commercial enterprise, at least in part, under his name
5ELEMENTS OF REAL PERSON MERCHANT Commercial EnterpriseDe facto operationOperation under the name of the merchant= MERCHANT
6REAL PERSON merchant-CONDITIONS A- Existence of a Commercial EnterpriseGeneral rule: To qualify as a merchant, existence of commercial enterprise is the first conditionElements of commercial enterprise?BUTA person who although has not established a commercial enterprise, enters into relationship with third parties as if he had formed a commercial enterprise, shall be held liable like merchant against third parties in good faith
7REAL PERSON merchant-CONDITIONS A- Existence of a Commercial Enterprise- CONTINUEElements of commercial enterpriseEconomic activityContinuityIndependencyCapacity
8REAL PERSON merchant-CONDITIONS A- Existence of a Commercial Enterprise- CONTINUEThird party shouldn’t know or it is not possible to know that there is not a commercial enterprise, an ordinary partnership or any coorporation.The person who enters into relationship with third parties as if he had formed a commercial enterprise (actually not)LIABLE as merchant, BUTDoesn’t benefit from the rights given to merchantExample: demand of bankruptcy is possible but demand for decreasing of penal clause is not possible
9REAL PERSON merchant-CONDITIONS B- Operation of the commercial enterpriseWhat is the meaning of “ operation of commercial enterprise?Establisment of an enterpriseEnter into business dealings with third partiesDe facto operationNTCC Article 12/II“Bir ticari işletmeyi kurup açtığını, sirküler, gazete, radyo, televizyon ve diğer ilan araçlarıyla halka bildirmiş veya işletmesini ticaret siciline tescil ettirerek durumu ilan etmiş olan kimse, fiilen işletmeye başlamamış olsa bile tacir sayılır”The person involved should have started the operations. If he/she has entered the establishmentwith register of commerce and publication orhas made annnouncements to the public, whether through newspapers or by distributing letters or leaflets, adverstising establishment,he would still be regarded as a merchant
10REAL PERSON merchant-CONDITIONS C- Operation of the commercial enterprise at least in part, under the name of the person concerned“at least in part” – jointly operation of enterprise by more than one personOperation of the enterprise by merchant is not compulsoryOn behalf of merchant, anyone may operate the commercial enterprise“Merchant character” belongs to whom? Worker?
11REAL PERSON merchant-CONDITIONS A- Existence of a Commercial Enterprise- CONTINUEThe person involved should have started the operations. If he/she has entered the establishment with register of commerce or has made annnouncements to the public, whether through newspapers or by distributing letters or leaflets, adverstising establishment, he would still be regarded as a merchant
12SPECIAL CONDITIONS- MERCHANT? MinorNot being in full possession of his mental facultiesBarred from involving in commercial businessCivil servantsDealing in commercial activities depended on a permission
13SPECIAL STUATIONS People who are minor and who are under guardianship People barred from involving in commercial businessDealing in commercial activities depended on a permission
14SPECIAL CONDITIONS- MERCHANT? People who are minor and who are under guardianship : According to NTCC Article 13 ( TCC Article 15), if the commercial enterprise is operated by a legal representative (guardian by nature or curator) on behalf of the people who are minor and who are under guardianship, people who are minor and who are under guardianship shall be deemed as merchantLegal responsibility derived from being merchant belongs to people who are minor and who are under guardianship but criminal liablity belongs to guardian by nature or curator
15SPECIAL CONDITIONS- MERCHANT? People who are minor and who are under guardianship :who are under guardianship?Insanity (madness)Weakness of the mindProdigality ( savurganlık), toxicomania (alcohol,narcotic), bad lifestyle, bad managementJail sentence (one and over one year)Demand
16SPECIAL STUATIONS People barred from involving in commercial business Article 14/I of NTCC: The person who are deprived of or prohibited from dealing in commercial activities because ofTheir personal statusLegal provision or Judgment The position/profession they occupyHold liable (as merchant) accordingly, if they are engaged in commercial enterpriseKişisel durumu, yaptığı işin özelliği ya da icra ettiği meslek ve görevden dolayı hakkında kanun hükmü veya mahkeme kararı gereğince ticaret yapma yasağı bulunan kişiler, bu yasaklara rağmen ticaretle uğraşacak olurlarsa tacir sayılırlar (YTTK.m.14/I, ETTK m.16/I).
17Under the provISIONS of ntcc, People deemed as merchant
18Under the provISIONS of ntcc, People WHO ARE RESPONSIBLE as merchant Person who has not required conditions to be deemed as merchant but through NTCC accepted liable as merchantLiability from the obligationsDoesn’t benefit from the rights given to merchantNTCC Article against third parties in good faithNTCC Article 13.1
19DIFFERENCES - TO BE DEEMED AS MERCHANT AND TO BE RESPONSIBLE AS MERCHANT Person deemed as merchant, shall benefit from the rights and be responsible for the obligations that derived from being merchantPerson who is responsible as merchant , shall only be responsible as merchant but shall not benefit from the rights given to merchant
20Legal person merchant Commercial companies Collective companyCommandit companyJoint-stock companyLimited (liability)companyCo-operativesAssociations which operate commercial enterpriseSpiritual purposeÖr. To help poor people– opening a restaurantNon-profit Associations are not merchant- Kızılay operating Afyonkarahisar minarel waterNon-profit Associations: operation more than 1 year, purpose of the Association, activities concerning the realistaion of the purpose, Decision of the Council of MinistersFoundations which operate commercial enterpriseNon-profit Foundations are not merchant. (Foundations that spent %50 or more of its income to the affairs that has public duty.Entities which are formed by State, Private Provincial Administration, Municipality, Village and other public corporations to be operated in a commercial manner or pursuant to their statutes of foundation to be managed according to private lawPublic Economic Enterprises and establishments belong to these EnterprisesIt is established with the decion of Council of MinistersHas legal personalitySubject to private law provisionsUnder the Article 16.1 of NTCC, it is accepted that all Public Economic Enterprises are merchantEconomic State Body (iktisadi devlet teşekkülü): Capital belongs to State + commercial activities in economic scope.Public economic units: capital belongs to Satate + establishment for the purpose of procuduction and marketing of goods or services that are monopoly (taking into condideration of the public interest) + these goods and services produced are accepted as privilege due to the statues of public serviceOther enterprises that are managed according to private law or operated in a commercial mannerEg: TÜBİTAK, Military mutual-aid assocation ( Ministry of National Defence) are accepted as merchant
21questION Article 16/II of NTCC Municipality is running a bus enterprise?Who is merchant?
22Loss of posITION OF BEING MERCHANT For real person merchantIn which conditions:Closure of commercial enterpriseTo end operating the commercial enterprise under his nameHow?Notification to register of commerce + demand for the cancelation of the registerTo declare propertyWhen?Within 15 days
23Loss of posITION OF BEING MERCHANT For legal person merchantIn which conditions:Cessation of legal personalityHow?Completion of liquidation procedurecancelation of the register (publication)
24Consequences of beING MERCHANT Regulated in Article of NTCCSubject to banckruptcyRegistration to the register of commerceRegistration to the ChambersSelection and usage of trade nameSubject to presumption of commercial affairSubject to trade customs and usageTo keep commercial booksTo behave as a prudent business manTo claim fee and interestTo claim discount in the fee and interestTo pass an invoiceRight of objection against invoice and confirmation letter within 8 daysForm requirement for all notices and notificationBenefit from the easiness concerning the usage of lienSubject to special provisions concerning sales and change of goods.
25QUESTION Registration the register of commerce Registration to the Tax officeQuestion: Are the statements mentioned above are necessary as the elements to be accepted as a merchant?
26PROVISIONS OF NTCC B) Tacir I - Gerçek kişiler 1. Genel olarak MADDE 12- (1) Bir ticari işletmeyi, kısmen de olsa, kendi adına işleten kişiye tacir denir.(2) Bir ticari işletmeyi kurup açtığını, sirküler, gazete, radyo, televizyon ve diğer ilan araçlarıyla halka bildirmiş veya işletmesini ticaret siciline tescil ettirerek durumu ilan etmiş olan kimse, fiilen işletmeye başlamamış olsa bile tacir sayılır.(3) Bir ticari işletme açmış gibi, ister kendi adına, ister adi bir şirket veya her ne suretle olursa olsun hukuken var sayılmayan diğer bir şirket adına ortak sıfatıyla işlemlerde bulunan kimse, iyiniyetli üçüncü kişilere karşı tacir gibi sorumlu olur.2. Küçük ve kısıtlılarMADDE 13- (1) Küçük ve kısıtlılara ait ticari işletmeyi bunların adına işleten yasal temsilci, tacir sayılmaz. Tacir sıfatı, temsil edilene aittir. Ancak, yasal temsilci ceza hükümlerinin uygulanması yönünden tacir gibi sorumlu olur.3. Ticaret yapmaktan menedilenlerMADDE 14- (1) Kişisel durumları ya da yaptığı işlerin niteliği nedeniyle yahut meslek ve görevleri dolayısıyla, kanundan veya bir yargı kararından doğan bir yasağa aykırı bir şekilde ya da başka bir kişinin veya resmî bir makamın iznine gerek olmasına rağmen izin veya onay almadan bir ticari işletmeyi işleten kişi de tacir sayılır.(2) Birinci fıkraya aykırı hareketin doğurduğu hukuki, cezai ve disipline ilişkin sorumluluk saklıdır.4. EsnafMADDE 15- (1) İster gezici olsun ister bir dükkânda veya bir sokağın belirli yerlerinde sabit bulunsun, ekonomik faaliyeti sermayesinden fazla bedenî çalışmasına dayanan ve geliri 11 inci maddenin ikinci fıkrası uyarınca çıkarılacak kararnamede gösterilen sınırı aşmayan ve sanat veya ticaretle uğraşan kişi esnaftır. Ancak, tacirlere özgü 20 ve 53 üncü maddeler ile Türk Medenî Kanununun 950 nci maddesinin ikinci fıkrası hükmü bunlara da uygulanır.II - Tüzel kişilerMADDE 16- (1) Ticaret şirketleriyle, amacına varmak için ticari bir işletme işleten vakıflar, dernekler ve kendi kuruluş kanunları gereğince özel hukuk hükümlerine göre yönetilmek veya ticari şekilde işletilmek üzere Devlet, il özel idaresi, belediye ve köy ile diğer kamu tüzel kişileri tarafından kurulan kurum ve kuruluşlar da tacir sayılırlar.(2) Devlet, il özel idaresi, belediye ve köy ile diğer kamu tüzel kişileri ile kamu yararına çalışan dernekler ve gelirinin yarısından fazlasını kamu görevi niteliğindeki işlere harcayan vakıflar, bir ticari işletmeyi, ister doğrudan doğruya ister kamu hukuku hükümlerine göre yönetilen ve işletilen bir tüzel kişi eliyle işletsinler, kendileri tacir sayılmazlar.
27BEING SUBJECT TO BANKRUPTCY Merchant is subject to bankruptcy concerning any kind of debtCommercial deptOrdinary deptWho are subject to bankruptcy?A- MerchantsPerson deemed as merchant (NTCC article 12.2)Exception NTCC Article 12.3, Non-profit Associations shall not be subject to bankruptcyPerson who are liable as merchant– Article 12.3Under the provisions of private acts, person who are subject to banckruptcyPerson who quits commercial activities (losing the status of merchant), shall be subject to bankruptcy within 1 year from the date of publication of the situationPartner of the collective and comandite company concerning company debt ( NTCC Article 238.2, 240, 304, 317)
28QUESTION A Collective Company has a verbal articles of association. The partner of the A Collective Company, Ahmet enters into business dealings with Mehmet ( operating bakery) basing on the verbal articles of association.Please take into consideration of Article 212 of NTCC.Question:1- Is A Collective Company merchant?2- Who is responsible against Mehmet concerning this dealing? If Mehmet is not in good faith any changes in your answer?3- Is Ahmet subject to bankrupcy? If yes Why?