... konulu sunumlar: "ENG 002 Introduction to Engineering Dr. K. Emre Can"— Sunum transkripti:
1ENG 002 Introduction to Engineering Dr. K. Emre Can This presentation introduces students to the field of Civil Engineering and the many different disciplines underneath that broad engineering umbrella. These pictures represent some of the areas of specialization. (Starting in the upper left and moving clockwise)Structural engineers design buildings that are more robust to high magnitude earthquakes. The older, dark building suffered considerable damage to its upper floors while the lighter, new building remained intact.This Egyptian pyramids demonstrate early expertise in construction engineering.Among other achievements, environmental engineers have converted plastic waste into useful objects such as this picnic table.Water resource and environmental engineers focus on conserving and reusing water, one of our most precious commodities.Transportation engineers contribute to new and improved sources of public transportation
2Civil Engineering Benefits Solve societal problemsWork with people of various backgroundsResponsible, highly respected jobChallenging technical careerUtilize modern technologyAllows indoor and outdoor work
3Major Areas of Specialization ConstructionGeotechnicalStructuralTransportationWater ResourcesEnvironmental
4Civil Engineers Conceptual plan and design, Supervise the construction,and operation oftransportation systems,water systems andcommunication networksCivil Engineers may concentrate on system design for a variety of applications. The map above shows the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority Light Rail routes. Civil engineers are involved in designating stop location positions, stop location design and construction, handicap access, parking, safety, evaluating traffic impact, and potential future expansion.
5Water Resources Hydraulic structures Hydrology Dam engineering HydropowerCoastal and ocean engineeringIrrigation and drainageGroundwater engineeringFlood controlTransportation with pipelines
6Water Resource Engineering Responsibilities includewater treatment processes,waste water management,environmental engineeringground water resources,sediment transport ,systemsWater is one of our most precious resources and the civil engineer must maximize water usage efficiency without endangering man or the environment.Water treatment plant flow chart
7CE 642 HYDRAULICS Flow in Closed Conduits Uniform Flow in Open ChannelsVaried Flow in Open ChannelsLocal Changes in Water Surface ProfileChannel ControlsDimensional Analysis &Model TheoryDesign of water and waste water systems
8CE 743 HYDROLOGY Introduction to Hydrology Precipitation Evaporation InfiltrationGroundwaterHydraulics of wellsMeasurement of stream flow & analysis of dataSurface flowsHydrograph analysis
9CE 844 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITARY ENGINEERING Water supply and wastewater removal systemsQuantity calculations of water and wastewaterFlow characteristicsCollection, transfer, accumulation and distribution of surface and subsurface waterCollection of wastewaterFlow in channelsDesign of channel systems
10CE 037 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Introduction to Systems AnalysisLinear and Integer ProgrammingApplications inReservoir systems design and operationIrrigation PlanningGroundwater systemsNetwork models
11Installed capacıty : 1 330 mw Energy production : 6 000 gwh/year KEBAN DAMKARAKAYA DAMInstalled capacıty : mwEnergy production : gwh/yearInstalled capacıty: mwEnergy production: gwh/year
13At the beginning there were two canals in Scotland : Canal Forth and Clyde was built in 1777 between harbors Grangemouth and Falkirk connecting Glasgow with west cost of Scotland.Canal Union between Falkirk and Edinburgh was finished in 1822.Because of geographical difficulties, which created a difference of 79ft.in elevation, the two canals were connected by 11 locks.
14In 1963, after 150 yrs of existence of this water way with 11 locks the construction of a huge water carousel started.This extraordinary idea was finished in 2002 and became a symbol of Scotland. This invention saves not only time but also energy.
15This is the only rotational boat transporter in the world This is the only rotational boat transporter in the world. It has two arms and each arm forms a kind of huge tub filled with water.Boats enter the tub, then the tub locks up and the huge arm starts rotating .
17WATER Too much Floods Too little Droughts Not clean Sickness Not on timeNot where it is needed
18The development of water resources, for a sufficient quantity and quality of water,properly distributed in time and space,requires conception, planning, design,construction and operation of facilitiesto control and utilize water.
20for increased control of any water resource The incentive to planfor increased control of any water resourceoften follows a major disastersuch as a flood, a drought, etc.
21Worlds major natural disasters : (Sabah 30 Aralık 2004)1931 Yangtze river flood === 3.7 Million died.Major project planned many dams were built.However,1975 flood resulted 63 dambreak casesand over 200,000 died.
22Worlds major natural disasters : 1970 Bangladesh tide 200,000+ diedNorth Vietnam Red River flooding 100,000+ diedDecember 2004 Asian tsunamiafter a major earthquake == 22,500 diedMyanmar Storm 100,000+ died
23Multiple Goals & Objectives PROBLEMSMultiple Goals & Objectives(due to differences in assesment of the cost and benefits)Example : Reservoir OperationsReservoir must befull for maximum hydropower generationempty for flood protectionat certain level for navigation & recreation
25the whole trans-boundary river basins: Advisory:the whole trans-boundary river basins:the Member State or Member States concerned shall endeavor to establish appropriate coordination with the relevant non-Member States,with the aim of achieving the objectives of WFD throughout the river basin district.
26• Water is not a commercial product like any other Principles• Water is not a commercial product like any otherbut, rather, a heritage which must be protected, defended and treated as such• It is necessary to developan integrated Community policy on water to preserve, protect and improve the quality of the environment• the precautionary principle, preventive action environmental damage should, be rectified at source• the polluter should pay subsidiarity• The involvement of all stakeholders (the PUBLIC)
2714 Nisan 2003 tarihinde AB Konseyi tarafından kabul edilen Türkiye için katılım ortaklığı belgesi Çevresel Etki Değerlendirilmesi Direktifinin etkili biçimde uygulanması isteniyor ve Sınır aşan sulara ilişkin işbirliğinin, su çerçeve direktifi ve AB’nin taraf olduğu uluslar arası sözleşmelere uygun olarak geliştirilmesine devam edilmesi isteniyor.
28Avrupa Parlamentosu’nun 15 Aralık 2004 tarihli oturumunda kabul ettiği ilke kararı Bölgesel istikrarın geliştirilmesi ve komşularla iyi ilişkiler kurulmasına devam edilmesi kapsamında, Türkiye’nin, komşu ülkelerin, özellikle Atatürk barajının inşa edilmesi sonrasında su akımının önemli ölçüde azaldığı Irak ve İran’ın aşağı Mezopotamya Bölgesi’ndeki su ihtiyaçlarına karşı daha duyarlı olmasını ve Suriye’nin de dahil olduğu komşu ülkelerle, Türkiye’den doğan ve bu ülkelere akan nehirlerdeki suyun adil ve eşit dağıtımın sağlanması konumunda çalışma gruplarının oluşturulmasını ister
29TAMAMLAYAN PROTOKOLLER DAHA ÖNEMLİ ÇED SÖZLEŞMESİ: Doğal deltalarda değişiklik söz konusu olacaksa uluslararası komisyon kararı gerekecek.ESPOO SÖZLEŞMESİ: Baraj yapma kararı sadece yönetim tarafından alınmayacak, yerel halklara da sorulacak ve halkın katılımı sağlanacak.
30Fırat üzerinde yapılan barajlar tamamlandı (Keban-Karakaya-Birecik-Karkamış-Atatürk) Dicle üzerinde büyük baraj yok. Su halen serbest akıyor. Ilısu’nun yapımına henüz başlanamadı.Dicle Irak için ve bölge için son derece stratejik.
31Kuzey Irak’taki Dicle’nin suyu doğal ve temiz. Petrolden sonra bölge için son derece önemli bir stratejik güçIrak su kaynakları bakanı A.Latif RASHİD ilk günden beri değişmedi ve Kürt kökenli.Sürekli Avrupa’da Dicle ile ilgili çalışmalar yapıyor.
32İsrail’in su kaynakları ve geleceği İsrail: Şeria Nehri, Golan Tepeleri, Batı Şeria ve Gazze’de ki yer altı sularını kullanıyor.Yıllık 1 milyar metreküp.Dicle’nin suyu: Yıllık 50 milyar metreküpBEKHME BARAJI: İsrail için stratejik önemi var.
33Meriç’te bir sınır aşan su. AB üyesi Yunanistan, üye olmak üzere olan Bulgaristan ve aday ülke Türkiye’yi ilgilendiren, bir nehir.Türkiye; burada aşağı kıyı ülkesi.Ve taşkınlar nedeniyle, Trakya çiftçisi, her yıl çok önemli zorluklar yaşıyor ve zarara uğruyor.AB, Acaba, kendiyle bağlantılı, bu üç ülkeyi ilgilendiren sınır aşan suyu, neden önemsemiyor ya da yaptırım uygulamıyor da, kendisiyle doğrudan ilişkili olmayan, Dicle ve Fırat’ı belgelerine not ediyor?
34Edirne'de, Bulgaristan'ın baraj kapaklarını açması sonucu yükselen Meriç, Arda ve Tunca nehirlerinin su debileri çiftçilerimizi mağdur ediyor…..
36CANADIAN Lake Diefenbaker case : 1949 lake was planned to provide irrigation for 200K ha.1962 estimate more than 100K ha.Hydropower production (winter) added.Project was completed in 1967.Five penstocks were built, 3 turbines installed.1973 only 6,500 ha were under irrigationRecreational use of the reservoir was planned afterwardsOut of 16 provincial parks, the 3 on Lake Diefenbakerranked 12,13,14!!!Water Supply and Flood Control Objectiveswere not successful as well!!!
37(precipitation, evaporation, sedimentation) PROBLEMSUncertainty(precipitation, evaporation, sedimentation)Knowing the principles but taking the risksComplexity in ground water interactions
39Floods Flood is an excessive stream discharge. Floods are normal and natural events occurring along streams several times a year to every few years.Bankfull discharge: discharge in regular stream channelFlood plain: flat plain on both sides of the stream
40FloodsSince most of world's population lives on or near coasts and floodplains, floods are a threat to millions of people.Floods can cause loss of life, damage to property, contamination of drinking water, and destruction of crops and fields.They can also trigger other hazards (slope failures, fires).
41Conditions causing floods heavy rainsrapid snowmeltsteep slopesdam failurestorm surges (from sea to the land)human interference (deforestation)most common
42Flood SeverityFlood severity depends on natural conditions in the drainage basin,- Rainfall - Vegetation- Infiltration rate - Climate- Slope - Seasonand on human activities such as;- Urbanization - Timbering- Agriculture - Flood control
44Floods Catastrophe: extraordinary natural event damaging humannaturesociety Return period: average time between two occurrences of a certain magnitude or a bigger one.Hazard (disaster) may benaturalanthropogenic (human activities)Hydrologic hazard is natural and it is the hazard in relation with water.
45Damages, which can be quantified loss of propertyloss of harvestdestroyed buildingscosts of rescue, rehabilitation of protection worksCost of interruption of transportion, etc.Non quantifiable damagesLoss of livesEnvironmental impactsDestruction of cultivated land
46Flood ControlFlooding is a geohazard for almost all the streams, small or large.There are a variety of methods used toreduce flood flows (flood control)minimize the effects of floods (flood mitigation)
47Prevention and mitigation Preparation of danger maps (different type areas):Areas with high intensity processes.Areas, with medium intensity processes.Areas subject to low intensity processes.Protection worksRiver training,flood retention reservoirs,protecting dikes,check dams,protection of river beds against erosion
48Floodwalls Floodways and diversions Floodways: areas on the floodplain of a stream where no new structures or homes are permitted.Existing homes and businesses are relocated, the ones which have to stay are suitably protected.Floodwalls Some areas can be protected by floodwalls (reinforced concrete structures parallel to river banks)Landings and stairways allow people access to the river.Floodwall for Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania
49Dams Dams impound stream water for water supply (municipal and irrigation),hydroelectric power generation,flood control,Recreation, etc.Dams are not intended to retain all the water that backs up behind them. They simply control the rate of streamflow. When water reaches a certain level, a spillway allows the water to spill into the stream below the dam.
50Flood impoundment dams Purpose is just flood control. They are kept empty as much as possible to be ready for the floodwater.After a flood, it is tried to be emptied quickly.They are important in areas prone to flash floods.Keeping reservoirs empty is in conflict with other needs of the community, such as recreation or hydropower generation.
51LeveesLevees are constructed to keep surrounding area from floods, but they create other problems such as:they give people a false sense of security, they don’t hurry for evacuation,periodic flooding enriches soil fertility by depositing nutrient-rich mineral particles over the flood plain, which will be prevented by levees.
52Protection from flood Levee tied into high ground Diversion channel to protect a cityA natural lowland used for cattle grazingLevee around a meandering stream
53Measlant Barier Docks are flooded Doors float Flooding and sinking Doors are hung a little above thresholdAfter an hour they lie in a silt free threshold
54Flood prediction and inundation maps Flood ForecastingIt is important to study past floods in the region in order to determine the possible future flood magnitudes.Flood inundation maps Flood inundation maps (flood hazard maps) show the areas that would be flooded by different flood discharges. These discharges correspond to different return periods such as 10, 25, 50 or 100 years. Inundation maps are very important for the housing permissions around the rivers and flood plains.
55Topography of Çayboğazı Basin West MediterraneanÇayboğazı BasinFethiye VillageTopography of Çayboğazı Basin
57Floods in TurkeyThroughout history, Turkey had many floods causing disasters.They caused damage, may be more than eathquakes.Turkish rivers have nonuniform regimes.The topography is favorable for floods in many regions.Vegetation, especially forests are getting smaller in area.
58Floods in Turkey Year Number of floods Number of deaths Inundation area(ha)195639019572918549 3361962201894 014196355341966263119686119692271972232421 07619731044 188197516447 242197952 95019801148 47319841-28 457
59Filyos and Bartın Flood (May 1998) Floods in TurkeyFilyos and Bartın Flood (May 1998)Water elevation increased 15 m above the normalTotal damage1300 km highway600 km village roads60 km railway12 highway bridges91 village road bridges6900 m gutters13800 m retaining walls
61The Netherlands are living with water! 34000 km216 million inhabitantsThe Netherlands without dikesElevation25% below sea level65% vulnerable to water
62This image is a work of an U.S. Army Corps of Engineers employee, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain
63Concrete LeveeLake PonchartrainUnprotected grass covereddownstream slopeSteel CoreNew OrleansProtectionEmbankmentDesigned for a Hurricane of category 3.