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ENG 002 Introduction to Engineering Dr. K. Emre Can.

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1 ENG 002 Introduction to Engineering Dr. K. Emre Can

2 Civil Engineering Benefits  Solve societal problems  Work with people of various backgrounds  Responsible, highly respected job  Challenging technical career  Utilize modern technology  Allows indoor and outdoor work

3 Major Areas of Specialization  Construction  Geotechnical  Structural  Transportation  Water Resources  Environmental

4 Civil Engineers  Conceptual plan and design,  Supervise the construction,  and operation of transportation systems, water systems and communication networks

5 Water Resources Hydraulic structures Hydraulic structures Hydrology Hydrology Dam engineering Dam engineering Hydropower Hydropower Coastal and ocean engineering Coastal and ocean engineering Irrigation and drainage Irrigation and drainage Groundwater engineering Groundwater engineering Flood control Flood control Transportation with pipelines Transportation with pipelines

6 Water Resource Engineering Responsibilities include  water treatment processes,  waste water management,  environmental engineering  ground water resources,  sediment transport,  systems Water treatment plant flow chart

7 CE 642 HYDRAULICS  Flow in Closed Conduits  Uniform Flow in Open Channels  Varied Flow in Open Channels  Local Changes in Water Surface Profile  Channel Controls  Dimensional Analysis &Model Theory  Design of water and waste water systems

8 CE 743 HYDROLOGY  Introduction to Hydrology  Precipitation  Evaporation  Infiltration  Groundwater  Hydraulics of wells  Measurement of stream flow & analysis of data  Surface flows  Hydrograph analysis

9 CE 844 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITARY ENGINEERING  Water supply and wastewater removal systems  Quantity calculations of water and wastewater  Flow characteristics  Collection, transfer, accumulation and distribution of surface and subsurface water  Collection of wastewater  Flow in channels  Design of channel systems

10 CE 037 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT  Introduction to Systems Analysis  Linear and Integer Programming  Applications in Reservoir systems design and operation Reservoir systems design and operation Irrigation Planning Irrigation Planning Groundwater systems Groundwater systems Network models Network models

11 KEBAN DAM Installed capacıty : mw Energy production : gwh/year KARAKAYA DAM Installed capacıty: mw Energy production: gwh/year

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13 At the beginning there were two canals in Scotland : Canal Forth and Clyde was built in 1777 between harbors Grangemouth and Falkirk connecting Glasgow with west cost of Scotland. Canal Union between Falkirk and Edinburgh was finished in Because of geographical difficulties, which created a difference of 79ft.in elevation, the two canals were connected by 11 locks.

14 In 1963, after 150 yrs of existence of this water way with 11 locks the construction of a huge water carousel started. This extraordinary idea was finished in 2002 and became a symbol of Scotland. This invention saves not only time but also energy.

15 This is the only rotational boat transporter in the world. It has two arms and each arm forms a kind of huge tub filled with water. Boats enter the tub, then the tub locks up and the huge arm starts rotating.

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17 WATER Too much  Floods Too little  Droughts Not clean  Sickness Not on time Not where it is needed

18 The development of water resources, for a sufficient quantity and quality of water, properly distributed in time and space, requires conception, planning, design, construction and operation of facilities to control and utilize water.

19 Dams, diversions, tunnels, levees, pipelines, pumping plants, water treatment plants, aqueducts, valves, drops, enery dissipators, etc....

20 The incentive to plan for increased control of any water resource often follows a major disaster such as a flood, a drought, etc.

21 Worlds major natural disasters : (Sabah 30 Aralık 2004) 1931 Yangtze river flood ===  3.7 Million died. Major project planned many dams were built. However, 1975 flood resulted 63 dambreak cases and over 200,000 died.

22 Worlds major natural disasters : 1970 Bangladesh tide  200,000+ died North Vietnam Red River flooding  100,000+ died December 2004 Asian tsunami after a major earthquake ==  22,500 died Myanmar Storm  100,000+ died

23 Multiple Goals & Objectives (due to differences in assesment of the cost and benefits) Example : Reservoir Operations Reservoir must be full for maximum hydropower generation empty for flood protection at certain level for navigation & recreation PROBLEMS

24 Water Framework Directive WFD (2000/60/EC)

25 Advisory: the whole trans-boundary river basins: the Member State or Member States concerned shall endeavor to establish appropriate coordination with the relevant non-Member States, with the aim of achieving the objectives of WFD throughout the river basin district.

26 Principles Water is not a commercial product like any other but, rather, a heritage which must be protected, defended and treated as such It is necessary to develop an integrated Community policy on water to preserve, protect and improve the quality of the environment the precautionary principle, preventive action environmental damage should, be rectified at source the polluter should pay subsidiarity The involvement of all stakeholders (the PUBLIC)

27 14 Nisan 2003 tarihinde AB Konseyi tarafından kabul edilen Türkiye için katılım ortaklığı belgesi  Çevresel Etki Değerlendirilmesi Direktifinin etkili biçimde uygulanması isteniyor ve Sınır aşan sulara ilişkin işbirliğinin, su çerçeve direktifi ve AB’nin taraf olduğu uluslar arası sözleşmelere uygun olarak geliştirilmesine devam edilmesi isteniyor.

28 Avrupa Parlamentosu’nun 15 Aralık 2004 tarihli oturumunda kabul ettiği ilke kararı  Bölgesel istikrarın geliştirilmesi ve komşularla iyi ilişkiler kurulmasına devam edilmesi kapsamında, Türkiye’nin, komşu ülkelerin, özellikle Atatürk barajının inşa edilmesi sonrasında su akımının önemli ölçüde azaldığı Irak ve İran’ın aşağı Mezopotamya Bölgesi’ndeki su ihtiyaçlarına karşı daha duyarlı olmasını ve Suriye’nin de dahil olduğu komşu ülkelerle, Türkiye’den doğan ve bu ülkelere akan nehirlerdeki suyun adil ve eşit dağıtımın sağlanması konumunda çalışma gruplarının oluşturulmasını ister

29 TAMAMLAYAN PROTOKOLLER DAHA ÖNEMLİ  ÇED SÖZLEŞMESİ: Doğal deltalarda değişiklik söz konusu olacaksa uluslararası komisyon kararı gerekecek.  ESPOO SÖZLEŞMESİ: Baraj yapma kararı sadece yönetim tarafından alınmayacak, yerel halklara da sorulacak ve halkın katılımı sağlanacak.

30  Fırat üzerinde yapılan barajlar tamamlandı (Keban-Karakaya-Birecik-Karkamış-Atatürk)  Dicle üzerinde büyük baraj yok. Su halen serbest akıyor. Ilısu’nun yapımına henüz başlanamadı.  Dicle Irak için ve bölge için son derece stratejik.

31  Kuzey Irak’taki Dicle’nin suyu doğal ve temiz. Petrolden sonra bölge için son derece önemli bir stratejik güç  Irak su kaynakları bakanı A.Latif RASHİD ilk günden beri değişmedi ve Kürt kökenli. Sürekli Avrupa’da Dicle ile ilgili çalışmalar yapıyor.

32 İsrail’in su kaynakları ve geleceği  İsrail: Şeria Nehri, Golan Tepeleri, Batı Şeria ve Gazze’de ki yer altı sularını kullanıyor.  Yıllık 1 milyar metreküp.  Dicle’nin suyu: Yıllık 50 milyar metreküp  BEKHME BARAJI: İsrail için stratejik önemi var.

33 Meriç’te bir sınır aşan su.  AB üyesi Yunanistan, üye olmak üzere olan Bulgaristan ve aday ülke Türkiye’yi ilgilendiren, bir nehir.  Türkiye; burada aşağı kıyı ülkesi.  Ve taşkınlar nedeniyle, Trakya çiftçisi, her yıl çok önemli zorluklar yaşıyor ve zarara uğruyor.  AB, Acaba, kendiyle bağlantılı, bu üç ülkeyi ilgilendiren sınır aşan suyu, neden önemsemiyor ya da yaptırım uygulamıyor da, kendisiyle doğrudan ilişkili olmayan, Dicle ve Fırat’ı belgelerine not ediyor?

34  Edirne'de, Bulgaristan'ın baraj kapaklarını açması sonucu yükselen Meriç, Arda ve Tunca nehirlerinin su debileri çiftçilerimizi mağdur ediyor…..

35 Irreversibility PROBLEMS

36 CANADIAN Lake Diefenbaker case : 1949 lake was planned to provide irrigation for 200K ha estimate more than 100K ha. Hydropower production (winter) added. Project was completed in Five penstocks were built, 3 turbines installed only 6,500 ha were under irrigation Recreational use of the reservoir was planned afterwards Out of 16 provincial parks, the 3 on Lake Diefenbaker ranked 12,13,14!!! Water Supply and Flood Control Objectives were not successful as well!!!

37 Uncertainty (precipitation, evaporation, sedimentation) Knowing the principles but taking the risks Complexity in ground water interactions PROBLEMS

38 Non-Economic effects Loss of Life PROBLEMS

39  Flood is an excessive stream discharge.  Floods are normal and natural events occurring along streams several times a year to every few years.  Bankfull discharge: discharge in regular stream channel  Flood plain: flat plain on both sides of the stream Floods

40   Since most of world's population lives on or near coasts and floodplains, floods are a threat to millions of people.   Floods can cause loss of life, damage to property, contamination of drinking water, and destruction of crops and fields.   They can also trigger other hazards (slope failures, fires). Floods

41  heavy rains  rapid snowmelt  steep slopes  dam failure  storm surges (from sea to the land)  human interference (deforestation) most common Conditions causing floods

42 Flood severity depends on natural conditions in the drainage basin, - Rainfall- Vegetation - Infiltration rate- Climate - Slope- Season and on human activities such as; - Urbanization- Timbering - Agriculture- Flood control Flood Severity

43 Effect of urbanization

44 Floods   Catastrophe: extraordinary natural event damaging   human   nature   society   Return period: average time between two occurrences of a certain magnitude or a bigger one.   Hazard (disaster) may be   natural   anthropogenic (human activities)   Hydrologic hazard is natural and it is the hazard in relation with water.

45 loss of property loss of harvest destroyed buildings costs of rescue, rehabilitation of protection works Cost of interruption of transportion, etc. Damages, which can be quantified Non quantifiable damages Loss of lives Environmental impacts Destruction of cultivated land

46  Flooding is a geohazard for almost all the streams, small or large.  There are a variety of methods used to reduce flood flows (flood control) minimize the effects of floods (flood mitigation) Flood Control

47 Prevention and mitigation  Preparation of danger maps (different type areas): Areas with high intensity processes. Areas with high intensity processes. Areas, with medium intensity processes. Areas, with medium intensity processes. Areas subject to low intensity processes. Areas subject to low intensity processes. Protection works  River training,  flood retention reservoirs,  protecting dikes,  check dams,  protection of river beds against erosion

48 Floodways and diversions  Floodways: areas on the floodplain of a stream where no new structures or homes are permitted.  Existing homes and businesses are relocated, the ones which have to stay are suitably protected. Floodwalls  Some areas can be protected by floodwalls (reinforced concrete structures parallel to river banks)  Landings and stairways allow people access to the river. Floodwall for Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania

49 Dams  Dams impound stream water for water supply (municipal and irrigation), hydroelectric power generation, flood control, Recreation, etc.  Dams are not intended to retain all the water that backs up behind them. They simply control the rate of streamflow.  When water reaches a certain level, a spillway allows the water to spill into the stream below the dam.

50 Flood impoundment dams  Purpose is just flood control. They are kept empty as much as possible to be ready for the floodwater.  After a flood, it is tried to be emptied quickly.  They are important in areas prone to flash floods.  Keeping reservoirs empty is in conflict with other needs of the community, such as recreation or hydropower generation.

51 Levees Levees are constructed to keep surrounding area from floods, but they create other problems such as:  they give people a false sense of security, they don’t hurry for evacuation,  periodic flooding enriches soil fertility by depositing nutrient-rich mineral particles over the flood plain, which will be prevented by levees.

52 A natural lowland used for cattle grazing Levee tied into high ground Diversion channel to protect a city Levee around a meandering stream Protection from flood

53 Measlant Barier  Docks are flooded  Doors float  Flooding and sinking  Doors are hung a little above threshold  After an hour they lie in a silt free threshold

54 Flood Forecasting  It is important to study past floods in the region in order to determine the possible future flood magnitudes. Flood prediction and inundation maps Flood inundation maps  Flood inundation maps (flood hazard maps) show the areas that would be flooded by different flood discharges.  Flood inundation maps (flood hazard maps) show the areas that would be flooded by different flood discharges.  These discharges correspond to different return periods such as 10, 25, 50 or 100 years.  These discharges correspond to different return periods such as 10, 25, 50 or 100 years.  Inundation maps are very important for the housing permissions around the rivers and flood plains.

55 Fethiye Village West Mediterranean Çayboğazı Basin Topography of Basin Topography of Çayboğazı Basin

56 Çayboğazı Basin 3D view 100 yr flood

57 Floods in Turkey  Throughout history, Turkey had many floods causing disasters.  They caused damage, may be more than eathquakes.  Turkish rivers have nonuniform regimes.  The topography is favorable for floods in many regions.  Vegetation, especially forests are getting smaller in area.

58 YearNumber of floodsNumber of deathsInundation area (ha) Floods in Turkey

59 Filyos and Bartın Flood () Filyos and Bartın Flood (May 1998)  Water elevation increased 15 m above the normal  Total damage 1300 km highway 1300 km highway 600 km village roads 600 km village roads 60 km railway 60 km railway 12 highway bridges 12 highway bridges 91 village road bridges 91 village road bridges 6900 m gutters 6900 m gutters m retaining walls m retaining walls Floods in Turkey

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61 Elevation   25% below sea level   65% vulnerable to water The Netherlands without dikes The Netherlands are living with water!  km 2  16 million inhabitants

62 This image is a work of an U.S. Army Corps of Engineers employee, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain

63 Designed for a Hurricane of category 3. Embankment Lake Ponchartrain New Orleans Concrete Levee Steel Core Protection Unprotected grass covered downstream slope


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