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ENG 002 Introduction to Engineering Dr. K. Emre Can

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1 ENG 002 Introduction to Engineering Dr. K. Emre Can
This presentation introduces students to the field of Civil Engineering and the many different disciplines underneath that broad engineering umbrella. These pictures represent some of the areas of specialization. (Starting in the upper left and moving clockwise) Structural engineers design buildings that are more robust to high magnitude earthquakes. The older, dark building suffered considerable damage to its upper floors while the lighter, new building remained intact. This Egyptian pyramids demonstrate early expertise in construction engineering. Among other achievements, environmental engineers have converted plastic waste into useful objects such as this picnic table. Water resource and environmental engineers focus on conserving and reusing water, one of our most precious commodities. Transportation engineers contribute to new and improved sources of public transportation

2 Civil Engineering Benefits
Solve societal problems Work with people of various backgrounds Responsible, highly respected job Challenging technical career Utilize modern technology Allows indoor and outdoor work

3 Major Areas of Specialization
Construction Geotechnical Structural Transportation Water Resources Environmental

4 Civil Engineers Conceptual plan and design,
Supervise the construction, and operation of transportation systems, water systems and communication networks Civil Engineers may concentrate on system design for a variety of applications. The map above shows the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority Light Rail routes. Civil engineers are involved in designating stop location positions, stop location design and construction, handicap access, parking, safety, evaluating traffic impact, and potential future expansion.

5 Water Resources Hydraulic structures Hydrology Dam engineering
Hydropower Coastal and ocean engineering Irrigation and drainage Groundwater engineering Flood control Transportation with pipelines

6 Water Resource Engineering
Responsibilities include water treatment processes, waste water management, environmental engineering ground water resources, sediment transport , systems Water is one of our most precious resources and the civil engineer must maximize water usage efficiency without endangering man or the environment. Water treatment plant flow chart

7 CE 642 HYDRAULICS Flow in Closed Conduits
Uniform Flow in Open Channels Varied Flow in Open Channels Local Changes in Water Surface Profile Channel Controls Dimensional Analysis &Model Theory Design of water and waste water systems

8 CE 743 HYDROLOGY Introduction to Hydrology Precipitation Evaporation
Infiltration Groundwater Hydraulics of wells Measurement of stream flow & analysis of data Surface flows Hydrograph analysis

9 CE 844 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITARY ENGINEERING
Water supply and wastewater removal systems Quantity calculations of water and wastewater Flow characteristics Collection, transfer, accumulation and distribution of surface and subsurface water Collection of wastewater Flow in channels Design of channel systems

10 CE 037 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Introduction to Systems Analysis Linear and Integer Programming Applications in Reservoir systems design and operation Irrigation Planning Groundwater systems Network models

11 Installed capacıty : 1 330 mw Energy production : 6 000 gwh/year
KEBAN DAM KARAKAYA DAM Installed capacıty : mw Energy production : gwh/year Installed capacıty: mw Energy production: gwh/year

12

13 At the beginning there were two canals in Scotland :
Canal Forth and Clyde was built in 1777 between harbors Grangemouth and Falkirk connecting Glasgow with west cost of Scotland. Canal Union between Falkirk and Edinburgh was finished in 1822. Because of geographical difficulties, which created a difference of 79ft.in elevation, the two canals were connected by 11 locks.

14 In 1963, after 150 yrs of existence of this water way with 11 locks the construction of a huge water carousel started. This extraordinary idea was finished in 2002 and became a symbol of Scotland. This invention saves not only time but also energy.

15 This is the only rotational boat transporter in the world
This is the only rotational boat transporter in the world. It has two arms and each arm forms a kind of huge tub filled with water. Boats enter the tub, then the tub locks up and the huge arm starts rotating .

16

17 WATER Too much  Floods Too little  Droughts Not clean  Sickness
Not on time Not where it is needed

18 The development of water resources,
for a sufficient quantity and quality of water, properly distributed in time and space, requires conception, planning, design, construction and operation of facilities to control and utilize water.

19 Dams, diversions, tunnels, levees, pipelines, pumping plants,
water treatment plants, aqueducts, valves, drops, enery dissipators, etc....

20 for increased control of any water resource
The incentive to plan for increased control of any water resource often follows a major disaster such as a flood, a drought, etc.

21 Worlds major natural disasters :
(Sabah 30 Aralık 2004) 1931 Yangtze river flood === 3.7 Million died. Major project planned many dams were built. However, 1975 flood resulted 63 dambreak cases and over 200,000 died.

22 Worlds major natural disasters :
1970 Bangladesh tide  200,000+ died North Vietnam Red River flooding  100,000+ died December 2004 Asian tsunami after a major earthquake == 22,500 died Myanmar Storm  100,000+ died

23 Multiple Goals & Objectives
PROBLEMS Multiple Goals & Objectives (due to differences in assesment of the cost and benefits) Example : Reservoir Operations Reservoir must be full for maximum hydropower generation empty for flood protection at certain level for navigation & recreation

24 Water Framework Directive WFD (2000/60/EC)

25 the whole trans-boundary river basins:
Advisory: the whole trans-boundary river basins: the Member State or Member States concerned shall endeavor to establish appropriate coordination with the relevant non-Member States, with the aim of achieving the objectives of WFD throughout the river basin district.

26 • Water is not a commercial product like any other
Principles • Water is not a commercial product like any other but, rather, a heritage which must be protected, defended and treated as such • It is necessary to develop an integrated Community policy on water to preserve, protect and improve the quality of the environment • the precautionary principle, preventive action environmental damage should, be rectified at source • the polluter should pay subsidiarity • The involvement of all stakeholders (the PUBLIC)

27 14 Nisan 2003 tarihinde AB Konseyi tarafından kabul edilen Türkiye için katılım ortaklığı belgesi
Çevresel Etki Değerlendirilmesi Direktifinin etkili biçimde uygulanması isteniyor ve Sınır aşan sulara ilişkin işbirliğinin, su çerçeve direktifi ve AB’nin taraf olduğu uluslar arası sözleşmelere uygun olarak geliştirilmesine devam edilmesi isteniyor.

28 Avrupa Parlamentosu’nun 15 Aralık 2004 tarihli oturumunda kabul ettiği ilke kararı
Bölgesel istikrarın geliştirilmesi ve komşularla iyi ilişkiler kurulmasına devam edilmesi kapsamında, Türkiye’nin, komşu ülkelerin, özellikle Atatürk barajının inşa edilmesi sonrasında su akımının önemli ölçüde azaldığı Irak ve İran’ın aşağı Mezopotamya Bölgesi’ndeki su ihtiyaçlarına karşı daha duyarlı olmasını ve Suriye’nin de dahil olduğu komşu ülkelerle, Türkiye’den doğan ve bu ülkelere akan nehirlerdeki suyun adil ve eşit dağıtımın sağlanması konumunda çalışma gruplarının oluşturulmasını ister

29 TAMAMLAYAN PROTOKOLLER DAHA ÖNEMLİ
ÇED SÖZLEŞMESİ: Doğal deltalarda değişiklik söz konusu olacaksa uluslararası komisyon kararı gerekecek. ESPOO SÖZLEŞMESİ: Baraj yapma kararı sadece yönetim tarafından alınmayacak, yerel halklara da sorulacak ve halkın katılımı sağlanacak.

30 Fırat üzerinde yapılan barajlar tamamlandı (Keban-Karakaya-Birecik-Karkamış-Atatürk)
Dicle üzerinde büyük baraj yok. Su halen serbest akıyor. Ilısu’nun yapımına henüz başlanamadı. Dicle Irak için ve bölge için son derece stratejik.

31 Kuzey Irak’taki Dicle’nin suyu doğal ve temiz.
Petrolden sonra bölge için son derece önemli bir stratejik güç Irak su kaynakları bakanı A.Latif RASHİD ilk günden beri değişmedi ve Kürt kökenli. Sürekli Avrupa’da Dicle ile ilgili çalışmalar yapıyor.

32 İsrail’in su kaynakları ve geleceği
İsrail: Şeria Nehri, Golan Tepeleri, Batı Şeria ve Gazze’de ki yer altı sularını kullanıyor. Yıllık 1 milyar metreküp. Dicle’nin suyu: Yıllık 50 milyar metreküp BEKHME BARAJI: İsrail için stratejik önemi var.

33 Meriç’te bir sınır aşan su.
AB üyesi Yunanistan, üye olmak üzere olan Bulgaristan ve aday ülke Türkiye’yi ilgilendiren, bir nehir. Türkiye; burada aşağı kıyı ülkesi. Ve taşkınlar nedeniyle, Trakya çiftçisi, her yıl çok önemli zorluklar yaşıyor ve zarara uğruyor. AB, Acaba, kendiyle bağlantılı, bu üç ülkeyi ilgilendiren sınır aşan suyu, neden önemsemiyor ya da yaptırım uygulamıyor da, kendisiyle doğrudan ilişkili olmayan, Dicle ve Fırat’ı belgelerine not ediyor?

34 Edirne'de, Bulgaristan'ın baraj kapaklarını açması sonucu yükselen Meriç, Arda ve Tunca nehirlerinin su debileri çiftçilerimizi mağdur ediyor…..

35 PROBLEMS Irreversibility

36 CANADIAN Lake Diefenbaker case :
1949 lake was planned to provide irrigation for 200K ha. 1962 estimate more than 100K ha. Hydropower production (winter) added. Project was completed in 1967. Five penstocks were built, 3 turbines installed. 1973 only 6,500 ha were under irrigation Recreational use of the reservoir was planned afterwards Out of 16 provincial parks, the 3 on Lake Diefenbaker ranked 12,13,14!!! Water Supply and Flood Control Objectives were not successful as well!!!

37 (precipitation, evaporation, sedimentation)
PROBLEMS Uncertainty (precipitation, evaporation, sedimentation) Knowing the principles but taking the risks Complexity in ground water interactions

38 PROBLEMS Non-Economic effects Loss of Life

39 Floods Flood is an excessive stream discharge.
Floods are normal and natural events occurring along streams several times a year to every few years. Bankfull discharge: discharge in regular stream channel Flood plain: flat plain on both sides of the stream

40 Floods Since most of world's population lives on or near coasts and floodplains, floods are a threat to millions of people. Floods can cause loss of life, damage to property, contamination of drinking water, and destruction of crops and fields. They can also trigger other hazards (slope failures, fires).

41 Conditions causing floods
heavy rains rapid snowmelt steep slopes dam failure storm surges (from sea to the land) human interference (deforestation) most common

42 Flood Severity Flood severity depends on natural conditions in the drainage basin, - Rainfall - Vegetation - Infiltration rate - Climate - Slope - Season and on human activities such as; - Urbanization - Timbering - Agriculture - Flood control

43 Effect of urbanization

44 Floods Catastrophe: extraordinary natural event damaging
human nature society  Return period: average time between two occurrences of a certain magnitude or a bigger one. Hazard (disaster) may be natural anthropogenic (human activities) Hydrologic hazard is natural and it is the hazard in relation with water.

45 Damages, which can be quantified
loss of property loss of harvest destroyed buildings costs of rescue, rehabilitation of protection works Cost of interruption of transportion, etc. Non quantifiable damages Loss of lives Environmental impacts Destruction of cultivated land

46 Flood Control Flooding is a geohazard for almost all the streams, small or large. There are a variety of methods used to reduce flood flows (flood control) minimize the effects of floods (flood mitigation)

47 Prevention and mitigation
Preparation of danger maps (different type areas): Areas with high intensity processes. Areas, with medium intensity processes. Areas subject to low intensity processes. Protection works River training, flood retention reservoirs, protecting dikes, check dams, protection of river beds against erosion

48 Floodwalls Floodways and diversions
Floodways: areas on the floodplain of a stream where no new structures or homes are permitted. Existing homes and businesses are relocated, the ones which have to stay are suitably protected. Floodwalls  Some areas can be protected by floodwalls (reinforced concrete structures parallel to river banks) Landings and stairways allow people access to the river. Floodwall for Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania

49 Dams Dams impound stream water for
water supply (municipal and irrigation), hydroelectric power generation, flood control, Recreation, etc. Dams are not intended to retain all the water that backs up behind them. They simply control the rate of streamflow.  When water reaches a certain level, a spillway allows the water to spill into the stream below the dam.

50 Flood impoundment dams
Purpose is just flood control. They are kept empty as much as possible to be ready for the floodwater. After a flood, it is tried to be emptied quickly. They are important in areas prone to flash floods. Keeping reservoirs empty is in conflict with other needs of the community, such as recreation or hydropower generation.

51 Levees Levees are constructed to keep surrounding area from floods, but they create other problems such as: they give people a false sense of security, they don’t hurry for evacuation, periodic flooding enriches soil fertility by depositing nutrient-rich mineral particles over the flood plain, which will be prevented by levees.

52 Protection from flood Levee tied into high ground
Diversion channel to protect a city A natural lowland used for cattle grazing Levee around a meandering stream

53 Measlant Barier Docks are flooded Doors float Flooding and sinking
Doors are hung a little above threshold After an hour they lie in a silt free threshold

54 Flood prediction and inundation maps
Flood Forecasting It is important to study past floods in the region in order to determine the possible future flood magnitudes. Flood inundation maps  Flood inundation maps (flood hazard maps) show the areas that would be flooded by different flood discharges.  These discharges correspond to different return periods such as 10, 25, 50 or 100 years.  Inundation maps are very important for the housing permissions around the rivers and flood plains.

55 Topography of Çayboğazı Basin
West Mediterranean Çayboğazı Basin Fethiye Village Topography of Çayboğazı Basin

56 Çayboğazı Basin 3D view 100 yr flood

57 Floods in Turkey Throughout history, Turkey had many floods causing disasters. They caused damage, may be more than eathquakes. Turkish rivers have nonuniform regimes. The topography is favorable for floods in many regions. Vegetation, especially forests are getting smaller in area.

58 Floods in Turkey Year Number of floods Number of deaths
Inundation area (ha) 1956 3 90 1957 29 185 49 336 1962 20 18 94 014 1963 55 34 1966 26 31 1968 61 1969 22 7 1972 23 24 21 076 1973 10 44 188 1975 16 44 7 242 1979 5 2 950 1980 11 48 473 1984 1 - 28 457

59 Filyos and Bartın Flood (May 1998)
Floods in Turkey Filyos and Bartın Flood (May 1998) Water elevation increased 15 m above the normal Total damage 1300 km highway 600 km village roads 60 km railway 12 highway bridges 91 village road bridges 6900 m gutters 13800 m retaining walls

60

61 The Netherlands are living with water!
34000 km2 16 million inhabitants The Netherlands without dikes Elevation 25% below sea level 65% vulnerable to water

62 This image is a work of an U.S. Army Corps of Engineers employee, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain

63 Concrete Levee Lake Ponchartrain Unprotected grass covered downstream slope Steel Core New Orleans Protection Embankment Designed for a Hurricane of category 3.


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