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Macroeconomic Policies and Agriculture Adopted from slides by Prof. Yaşar Uysal From presentation to: EBSO 15 EKİM 2010.

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1 Macroeconomic Policies and Agriculture Adopted from slides by Prof. Yaşar Uysal From presentation to: EBSO 15 EKİM 2010

2 Objectives of Agricultural Policies in Turkey  Rational use of agricultural sector’s potential  Rational use of agricultural sector’s potential  Educating producers,  Educating producers,  Production planning,  Production planning,  Food safety,  Food safety,  Increase production and use of modern inputs,  Increase production and use of modern inputs,  Stability in agricultural prices,  Stability in agricultural prices,  Raise producer income,  Raise producer income,  Lower dependency to natural conditions,  Lower dependency to natural conditions,  Protect ecological balance,  Protect ecological balance,  Increase ag. exports,  Increase ag. exports,  Rural development,  Rural development,  Adjust to EU policies,  Adjust to EU policies,  Lower budgetary burden of agriculture  Lower budgetary burden of agriculture  Raise export competitiveness.  Raise export competitiveness.

3 Agricultural Policy Tools in Turkish Agriculture  Land reform  Land reform  Price supports,  Price supports,  Direct income supports  Direct income supports  Compensatory payments  Compensatory payments  Input subsidies  Input subsidies  Production supports  Production supports  Production quotas  Production quotas  Credit policies,  Credit policies,  Import policies  Import policies  Export policies  Export policies  Fiscal policies  Fiscal policies  Farm unios, cooperaties  Farm unios, cooperaties  Eductaion, infrestructure…  Eductaion, infrestructure…  Invesment incentives  Invesment incentives  Privatization of State owned enterprises  Privatization of State owned enterprises

4 Strategic sector Strategic sector Farmers are key producers Farmers are key producers Food industry is a key sector. Food industry is a key sector. Food security and safety. Food security and safety. Sustainable agricultural production. Sustainable agricultural production.

5 GROWTH PeriodAgricultureIndustrySErvicesGDP ,76,04,64, ,64,64,23, ,25,65,75, ,15,44,74,3

6 Employment (000persons) TotalAg. Empl. % , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,6

7 Share in GDP AgricultureIndustryServices ,122,352, ,026,756, ,428,458, ,319,072, ,824,654, ,127,957, ,126,262,6

8 Poverty in Agriculture Domestic Terms of Trade Output prices (1)Input Prices (2) 1/ , ,1178,4113, ,4321,8124, ,0494,6132, ,5909,6100, ,61.366,287, ,92.693,175, ,34.116,566, ,75.193,863, ,06.163,161, ,96.501,358, ,07.138,455, ,88.214,658, , ,451,6 Avg.-- 82,1

9 Integration to the Economy Integration Coefficients Sector Backward linkages Foreword linkages Backward linkages Foreward linkages Agriculture ,572621,38025 Industry ,128422,25345 Services ,577841,64517

10 Internal Terms of Trade Yıllar Deflator Product prices/Input prices Ag/ Output/ Ind Input , ,6 76, , ,8 57, ,2 49, ,5 48, ,3 46, ,7 44, ,4 41, ,8 44, ,8 39,0 Ort.109,5 55,7

11 External Trade of Ag ExportsImportsDifferenceX/M , , , , , , , , , , , ,1

12 Investment and Agriculture Agriculture10,68,15,25,0 Mining2,73,61,51,6 Manufacturing32,622,819,222,3 Energy4,910,45,87,9 Transportation13,518,521,425,1 Tourism0,51,72,84,5 Housing23,9 31,110,7 Education3,12,13,05,6 Health1,00,92,44,6 Other7,27,97,412,7

13

14 Export deficit (M > X) Saving deficit (I > S) Budget deficit (G > T) Need for external resources Pivatization FDI innflows Liberalization of capital movements High r Portfolio investments External resuurces Increasei in foreign currency Incerease in reserves Cost of reserves Valuat ion of TL External trade deficit Use of foreign credits Portfolio incomes Profit transfers External interest payments Y = C + I + G + ( X -M)

15 Yüksek Teknoloji Büyük ölçek Yeterli girdi Örgütlü üretici Yüksek verim düzeyi yü Yüksek gelir yü Düşük fiyatla ihracat yü Yüksek üretim desteği Yüksek ihracat desteği Düşük (suni) dünya fiyatları yü Gelişmekte olan ülkelerin tarım ürünü ihracat zorunluluğu GOÜ arasında Rekabet yü KAMU AÇIKLARI HIZLI NÜFUS ARTIŞI DÜŞÜK DÜNYA FİYATLARI BASKISI AĞIR VERGİ YÜKÜ MİRAS HUKUKU Yüksek Girdi Maliyeti Küçük/ parçalı Ölçek Yetersiz Eğitim Yetersiz/ yanlış Destekleme Yetersiz Örgütlenme Bilinci ve Örgütlenme Düzeyi Yetersiz Girdi Kullanımı DÜŞÜK VERİMLİLİK DÜŞÜK GELİR Yabancılara Toprak Satışı KENTE GÖÇ… Mülksüzleşme süreci Üretici aleyhine piyasa koşulları DÜŞÜK FİYAT ???????????? GELİŞMEKTE OLAN ÜLKE KOŞULLARI GELİŞMİŞ ÜLKE KOŞULLARI T Ü R K İ Y E K O Ş U L L A R I Kaynak Yetersizl iği IMF politikaları


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