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Yalova Üniversitesi | Enerji Sistemleri Mühendisliği|

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... konulu sunumlar: "Yalova Üniversitesi | Enerji Sistemleri Mühendisliği|"— Sunum transkripti:

1 Yalova Üniversitesi | Enerji Sistemleri Mühendisliği|
Güç Elektroniği Yalova Üniversitesi | Enerji Sistemleri Mühendisliği| Yrd. Doç. Dr. Kayhan INCE Ocak 2012, Yalova

2 Study Groups I recommend
You need to install MATLAB/SIMULINK in your Laptops Project: Design of DC-DC Converter using MATLAB/SIMULINK Textbook: Digital Power Electronics and applications Fang Lin Luo Hong Ye Muhammed Rashid EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

3 Projects Ders dönemi boyunca öğrenciler aşağıdaki konuyu Matlab ortamında simule edeceklerdir. Final tarihine kadar projelerini bitirmeleri gerekmektedir.  DC-DC Konvertör tasarımı (MATLAB / SIMULINK) (Buck, boost, buck-boost) EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

4 Projects EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

5 EMI and Layout Fundamentals
EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) is the unwanted coupling of signals from one circuit or system to another Conducted EMI: unwanted coupling of signals via conduction through parasitic impedances, power and ground connections Radiated EMI: unwanted coupling of signals via radio transmission These effects usually arise from poor circuit layout and unmodeled parasitic impedances Analog circuits rarely work correctly unless engineering effort is expended to solve EMI and layout problems Sooner or later, the engineer needs to learn to deal with EMI The ideal engineering approach: – figure out what are the significant EMI sources – figure out where the EMI is going – engineer the circuit layout to reduce EMI problems Build a layout that can be understood and analyzed EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

6 EMI and Layout Fundamentals
Wires are perfect (equipotential) conductors This assumption ignores • wire resistance • wire inductance • mutual inductance with other conductors EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

7 EMI and Layout Fundamentals
The space surrounding a wire is a perfect insulator (dielectric constant = 0) This assumption ignores capacitance between conductors EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

8 EMI and Layout Fundamentals
The ground (reference) node is at zero potential EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

9 About inductance of wires
Single wire in space Larger wire has lower inductance, because B-field must take longer path length around wire EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

10 EMI and Layout Fundamentals
A more realistic scenario: current flows around a closed loop EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

11 Example: Buck converter
switched input current i1(t) contains large high frequency harmonics hence inductance of input loop is critical inductance causes ringing, voltage spikes, switching loss, generation of B- and E fields, radiated EMI the second loop contains a filter inductor, and hence its current i2(t) is nearly dc hence additional inductance is not a significant problem in the second loop EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

12 EMI and Layout Fundamentals
Parasitic inductances of input loop explicitly shown: Addition of bypass capacitor border the pulsating current to a smaller loop: high frequency currents are shunted through capacitor instead of input source EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

13 EMI and Layout Fundamentals
Even better: minimize area of the high frequency loop, thereby minimizing its inductance EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

14 information Electronics
Power electronics measurement data Technology control Engineering rectifiers AC-DC inverters DC-AC converter AC-AC / DC-DC Çevirici Tipleri 1. AC - DC (denetimsiz) 2. AC - DC (denetimli) 3. DC - DC (izole edilmemiş) 4. DC - DC (izole edilmiş) 5. DC - AC 6. Sert ve yumuşak anahtarlamalı 8. AC – AC analog technology digital technology EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

15 EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

16 EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

17 Switches Diode (1940) polariteye bağlı iletkenlik, en çok kullanılan yarı- iletken, Üretici: Tüm yarı-iletken üreticileri Transistor (bipolar) (1948) lassen sich im Vergleich zur Diode mit Hilfe eines Steueranschlusses ein– und ausschalten, Hersteller siehe Dioden Transistor (Feldeffekt) (1969) typ.: Kesim gerilimi 200 V, Akım 100 A, açılabilir ve kapanabilir, Üretici : Siemens, Semikron, 1980’den beri MOSFET in olarak bilinmektedir Thyristor (1958) Kesim gerilimi 5500 V, Akım 3000 A, sadece açılabilir Üretici: ABB (IGCT), Siemens, .... GTO (1975) Kesim gerilimi 4500 V, Akım 3000 A, açılabilir ve kapanabilir, Üretici: Toshiba, ABB, ... IGBT (1987) Kesim gerilimi 3300 V, Akım 1200 A, açılabilir ve kapanabilir, Üretici : eupec, Semikron, ABB, Fuji, ... TRIAC Kesim gerilimi V, Akım A, paralel bağlı 2 adet tristör, Üretici: ABB, Siemens, .... EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

Tipi Anma Gerilimi (V) Akımı (A) Üst Frekans (Hz) Anahtarlama zamanı (s) İletim Direnci () Doğrultucu Genel Amaçlı 5000 1 k 100 0,16 m Yüksek Hızlı 3000 1000 10 k 2-5 1 m Schottky 40 60 20 k 0,23 10 m Kesime götürülen Tristörler Ters Tıkama 200 0,25 m 1200 1500 20 0,47 m 2500 400 5 k 2,16 m Ters İletim 2,1 m GATT 8 2,24 m Işık tetiklemeli 6000 0,53 m Triyaklar 300 3,57 m Kendiliğinden kesilen tristörler GTO 4500 15 2,5 m SITH 4000 2200 6,5 5,75 m Güç transistörleri Tek 250 9 4 m 6 31 m 630 50 25 k 1,7 15 m Darlington 30 SIT 100 k 0,55 1,2 Güç MOSFETleri 500 8,6 0,7 0,6 4,7 0,9 2 0,4 m IGBT 2,3 60 m MCT 600 2,2 18 m EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

19 Metals and Semiconductors
Solids in which the outermost atomic electrons are free to move around are metals Metals typically have ~1 “free electron” per atom ~5 ×1022 free electrons per cubic cm Electrons in semiconductors are not tightly bound, nor are they free, but can be easily “promoted” to a free state insulators semiconductors metals Quartz, SiO2 Si, GaAs Al, Cu poor conductors excellent conductors EE40, Fall Prof. White

20 Semiconductors Energy Valence band conduction band General
The electrical conductivity of a substance is primarily dependent on the number of free charge carriers. The electricity is transported by free electrons. Those electrons that are removed from the core farthest are called valence electrons. The energy of an electron increases with the distance from the core. conduction band Energy Prohibited band Valence band Energy band model EE40, Fall Prof. White

21 Semiconductors The major semiconductor silicon and germanium are 4-valent. The crystal is built tetrahedral shape. The element acts at a temperature of 0 K, as the ideal insulator. EE40, Fall Prof. White

22 Semiconductors P-doped zone N-doped zone P-neutral territory
PN junction without load voltage No voltage is applied from the outside, only the previously discussed diffusion currents and field currents flow at the boundary layer. At the terminals of the semiconductor can therefore no voltage be measured. P-doped zone N-doped zone P-neutral territory P-neutral territory Space charge zone N-neutral territory PN-junction, unloaded EE40, Fall Prof. White

23 PN junction forward load
If a voltage is applied to the positive terminal (+) of the P-region and the negative (-) to the N-region, then flows forward current. The mobile charge carriers must be transportiert against the electric field of the space charge zone in order to flow amount of current. Therefore, a certain minimum voltage is necessary so that a current flow is produced. P-doped zone N-doped zone P-neutral territory N-neutral territory Space charge zone PN-junction, forward load There are holes in the N-doped and electrons diffuse into the P-doped region. EE40, Fall Prof. White

24 PN junction blocking load
If a voltage is applied to the positive terminal (+) of the N-region and the negative (-) of the P-region, then there is blocking load. The externally applied voltage amplifies the field in the space charge zone. P-doped zone N-doped zone Space charge zone P-neutral territory N-neutral territory PN-junction, blocking load The mobile charge carriers are sucked out of the border region and the space charge region expands to the potential difference is essentially equal to the applied voltage. EE40, Fall Prof. White

25 Diodes The semiconductor diode is the practical industrial application of a PN junction. Cathode circuit symbol, terminal designation The most commonly used semiconductor material is silicon (Si). In some cases, also germanium (Ge) is used. Previously, even diodes from selenium (Se) and copper oxide (CuO2) built. Silicon brings advantages: Only in the region of very small voltages in the forward direction does the high forward voltage of silicon negative. The forward characteristic of silicon itself is then considerably steeper than for all other elements. This has caused the state losses for silicon diodes smallest. EE40, Fall Prof. White

26 Half-wave rectifier 𝐷𝐶 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝐸𝑓𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = 2 𝜋 =0,45
without 𝐷𝐶 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝐸𝑓𝑓 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = 2 𝜋 =0,45 EE40, Fall Prof. White

27 Necessary reverse bias voltage at the diode.
ripple voltage ripple Frequency of the ripple average Diode current Average output voltage Periodic peak current inrush current EE40, Fall Prof. White

28 Full-wave rectifier (B2 bridge circuit)
without B2 circuit There is finished assemblies in which four diodes are incorporated. Symbol of a B2 circuit EE40, Fall Prof. White

29 Common Terms: EE40, Fall Prof. White

30 Open circuit output voltage
Necessary reverse bias voltage at the diode. ripple voltage ripple Frequency of the ripple average Diode current Average output voltage Periodic peak current inrush current EE40, Fall Prof. White

31 Full wave rectifier circuit (M2 midpoint circuit)
without This circuit is used for transformers with center tap. For the same output voltage as a bridge circuit is twice the number of turns required in the transformer. The average current in the windings is to only half the size, because each half-cycle, a separate winding portion can be allocated. EE40, Fall Prof. White

32 Open circuit output voltage
Necessary reverse bias voltage at the diode. ripple voltage ripple Frequency of the ripple average Diode current Average output voltage Periodic peak current inrush current EE40, Fall Prof. White

33 Three-phase rectifier circuit (M3 midpoint circuit)
If a greater power is required for the direct current side, one can use the three-phase network as a source of the rectifier circuit. In a three-pulse midpoint circuit only three diodes are needed. Based on the output voltage but they must have the double reverse voltage as in a bridge circuit. without EE40, Fall Prof. White

34 Open circuit output voltage
Necessary reverse bias voltage at the diode. ripple voltage ripple Frequency of the ripple average Diode current Average output voltage Periodic peak current inrush current EE40, Fall Prof. White

35 Introduction to power electronics
Power electronics is the design of electronic circuits to control the flow of energy. • Electrical energy is consumed differently by different appliances, e.g. o 5V or 12V D.C.: e.g. domestic equipment (like P.C.s, TVs etc.) o Variable DC high-voltage: e.g. electric trains o Variable frequency AC: e.g. variable-speed A.C. machines • These appliances need to be supplied correctly. Power electronics can perform the conversion from what’s available (e.g. 220VAC) to what’s needed (e.g. 12V D.C.) FİLTERS: • Electrical power in one form as input, and output the power in another form. EE40, Fall Prof. White

36 Common Terms: a bad power electronic circuit:
The dimmer switch (the potentiometer) Good power electronics maximizes the power to the load, and minimizes the power wasted. EE40, Fall Prof. White

37 Major applications of power electronics
1) Conversion to D.C. • Most consumer electronics need a stable low voltage DC supply – very little variation in supply voltage • Power requirements can be huge; e.g. PCs need more than 300W ! They need: o AC-to-DC converters o DC-to-DC converters (one D.C. level to another) 2) Conversion to A.C. • AC motors are efficient, powerful and easy to maintain – especially big ones • Controlling their speed required a variable-frequency AC power source • Power electronics can create an A.C. signal at any desired frequency, to power A.C. machines at any desired speed. This D.C.-A.C. Process is called AC inversion. EE40, Fall Prof. White

38 İdeal bir Anahtar… Anahtar: İdeal bir anahtar nasıl olur?
1. Kapalıyken enerji kaybı gerçekleşmez 2. Açıkken enerji kaybı gerçekleşmez 3. Açma kapama sırasında enerji kaybı gerçekleşmez 4. Kapamak için az güç gereksinimi duyar 5. Çift yönlü mü? 6. Uygun gerilim ve akım oranları 7. Kısa açma kapama zamanı Özellikleri: 1. yüksek kırılma gerilimi (BV) 2. Kapalıyken düşük direnç 3. Hızlı anahtarlama frekansı EE Bilgisi, Kış 2011

39 Harmonics in Power supplies
Harmonic distortion • Most poser supplies are polluted with higher-frequency components (called harmonics). • They can degrade the performance of the devices powered in many ways, for example o Mains hum from an amplifier o High-frequency spikes in a supply to a microprocessor cause incorrect digital transitions o AC generators produce an imperfect sine wave • So unwanted harmonics can be minimized, but never completely avoided • Practically all periodic signals (voltages, currents, vibrations of any sort) can be represented as a sum of sine waves called harmonics. • Each harmonic’s frequency is an integer multiple of the base frequency. The amplitude of each harmonic affects the shape of the signal. EE40, Fall Prof. White

40 Example: a sinusoidal signal
A pure sine wave has one harmonic. It shows a pure sinusoidal voltage, and its frequency spectrum. This is a graph of the power in the signal at different frequencies. EE40, Fall Prof. White

41 Example: two sinusoidal signals
A signal composed of two sine waves EE40, Fall Prof. White

42 Common Terms: A rectified sinusoidal voltage
What is the fundamental frequency of the rectified sinusoid? What is the frequency of the sine wave that created it? EE40, Fall Prof. White

43 A Periodic Function EE40, Fall Prof. White

44 A Periodic Function EE40, Fall Prof. White

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