... konulu sunumlar: "ETI 305--Literary Translation I Translation decisions at the outset."— Sunum transkripti:
ETI 305--Literary Translation I Translation decisions at the outset
Vinay and Darbelnet (Stylistique comparée du français et de l’anglais--1958) Direct (literal) translation discusses three possible strategies: 1) Literal translation (word-for-word) 2) Calque (the SL expression is literally transferred to the TL) honeymoon-balayı, weekend-haftasonu 3) Borrowing (the SL word is transferred directly into the TL) kamikaze, brunch, software, laptop
Vinay and Darbelnet (Stylistique comparée du français et de l’anglais--1958) Oblique (free) translation covers four strategies: 4) Transposition: interchange of parts of speech that don’t change the meaning a noun phrase for a verb phrase 5) Modulation: reversal of point of view no vacancy-dolu, it’s difficult to understand-anlaması kolay değil 6) Equivalence: same meaning conveyed by a different expression, which is most useful for proverbs and idioms it’s raining cats and dogs-bardaktan boşalırcasına yağmur yağıyor 7) Adaptation: cultural references may need to be altered to become relevant Polish joke in US vs. Laz joke in Turkish
Translation strategies (cont’d) Addition: Adding to the TT Deletion/Omission: Omitting from the TT Compensation: When something cannot be translated from SL into TL, translator adds a similar usage elsewhere in TT Transcription: SL word is transferred into the TL, following the phonetic rules tren, radyo, otomobil, sinema Transposition: SL grammatical structure is changed according to the rules of TL Expansion: The meaning of SL word is expanded in the TL Reduction: The meaning of SL word is reduced in the TL O alçak bir adamdır. He’s a bastard. He’s a dishonest man.
Example ST: Science-fiction is the genre that he likes the most. He likes not only the books, but also the films and radio sketches of that genre. Although he told me once that he had never read a romance, I’ve found out lately that he actually read many Barbara Cartland books when he was in the high school. He let the cat out of the bag as always. TT: Onun en sevdiği tür bilim kurgudur. Sadece bilim kurgu kitaplarını değil, filmlerini izlemeyi ve radyo skeçlerini dinlemeyi de sever. Aşk kitaplarının sevdiği türlerden biri olmadığını söylediği halde, lisedeyken aslında bir sürü Kerime Nadir okuduğunu daha geçen hafta öğrendim. Her zamanki gibi ağzından baklayı çıkardı.
Decisions at the outset Source-oriented vs. target-oriented: Foreignization: Translation strategy in which target conventions are broken by retaining something of the foreignness of the original Domestication: Translation strategy in which a transparent, fluent style is adopted in order to minimize the strangeness of the foreign text
Decisions at the outset Resistant translation: When you read it, you know that it is translation. Smoothness and fluency are not desirable (as they are marks of a colonizing mentality). Elements that show the ‘otherness’ of the text are not excluded or avoided; instead they are sought out because they express some new things in translation.
Decisions at the outset Word-by-word or thought-by-thought? Determine your unit of translation: will it be the word, the sentence, the paragraph?
Decisions at the outset Adaptation or translation? Adaptation: the information content of the ‘original’ is the point of departure, but it is less ‘faithful’ than a translation. Some texts or situations (e.g., drama translation, farce, wordplay) may call for an adaptation Peruse the entire work carefully before you decide whether the text calls for such a strategy.
Decisions at the outset Register: any of the varieties of language that a speaker uses in a particular context Categories of register: non-technical vs. technical, informal vs. formal, urban vs. rural, standard vs. regional, jargon vs. non-jargon, vulgarity vs. propriety Register matters: choose the word which is appropriate both denotatively and connotatively
Decisions at the outset Tone: the overall feeling conveyed by an utterance, a passage, or an entire work; it can comprise humor, irony, sincerity, earnestness, naïveté, or virtually any sentiment “You will pardon me, colonel, but we would like to know when we may have the deed to the land... [D]on’t you remember that you sold us that piece of forest? In place of money on the cacao contract?” Who do you think is speaking here? A well-educated gentleman or an illiterate agricultural laborer? How do you know?
Samples ST: After the long flight, she is looking her age. She has never taken care of her appearence; she used to be able to get away with it; now it shows. Old and tired. (from Elizabeth Costello by J. M. Coetzee) TT: Uzun uçak yolculuğundan sonra, ne kadar yaşlı olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır şimdi. Dış görünüşüne asla özen göstermemiştir, doğal haliyle idare etmiştir uzun zaman. Ama artık bellidir, yaşlı ve yorgundur. (from Romancının Romanı, trans. by Efe Çakmak)
Samples ST: He is here, with her, out of love. He cannot imagine her getting through this trial without him at her side. TT: Oğlu burada, yanındadır, annesini sevdiği için. Şimdi annesinin yanında olmasaydı eğer, kadıncağızın bunca güçlük karşısında ne hale geleceğini hayal bile edemez.
Samples ST: He is about to leave. She speaks. TT: John tam odadan ayrılacakken, annesi konuşmaya başlar: ST: Now the scene has changed. He has grown up. TT: Artık sahne değişmiştir, büyümüştür.
Samples ST: What sort of creature is she, really? Not a seal: not amiable enough for that. But not a shark either. TT: Sahi ne tür bir yaratıktır bu anne dediği? Bir fok değildir bir kere; o kadar sevimli değildir. Ama bir köpekbalığı olduğu da söylenemez. ST: An instance? Am I allowed a word of protest? After all the effort I put into not writing like anyone else? TT: Örnek ha. İzin verirsen bunu kabul etmeyeceğim. Bir başkası gibi yazmamak için sarfettiğim onca çabadan sonra, böyle mi oldu şimdi?
Samples “Diyorlar ki deli olan sensin, ağaç değil. Ağaçlar delirmez diyorlar. Oysa be oturuyorum oturduğum yerde. Koşuyu tutturan o. Ben gece gündüz kalkmıyorum yerimden, kıpırdamıyorum bile. Yalnızca bakıyorum. Hep bakıyorum. Soluklanan o. Çırpınan o. Rüzgarla oynaşan, güneşe kollarını açan o. Arada uyukladığımda uzanıp camı tıklatan o. Deli olan o. Kötü günleri var.” (from “Bir Deli Ağaç” by Pınar Kür) “You’re the crazy one, they say, not the tree. Trees can’t go crazy. But it’s the tree that keeps on racing while I stay where I am. Night and day I never stir from here. I don’t move a muscle, but just keep on looking. The tree’s the one that breathes hard or flutters restlessly, or plays with the wind or opens its arms to the sun. It’s the tree that stretches out and taps at the window when I’m dozing. It’s the tree that’s crazy. It has its bad days.” (from “A Crazy Tree”, trans. by Ruth Christie)
Samples ST: Boğaz kıyısında konuştuğumuz son balıkçılardan biri, eskiden demirlemek için bir minare boyu zincir attığı sularda şimdi teknesinin karaya oturduğunu söyleyerek sordu: Başbakanımız bu konuyla ilgilenmiyor mu hiç? (from Kara Kitap by Orhan Pamuk) TT1: A fisherman we last interviewed on the shores of the Bosphorus, after describing how his boat went aground in the same deep waters where he once set anchor, put to us this question: Does our prime minister give a damn? (from The Black Book, trans. by Güneli Gün) TT2: After one of the last remaining Bosphorus fishermen told me how his boat had run aground in a place where he had once had to throw in an anchor on a chain as long as a minaret, he asked, isn’t our prime minister at all interested in knowing why? (from The Black Book, trans. by Maureen Freely)