... konulu sunumlar: "NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN ENERGY AND EXERGY TECHNOLOGIES Prof. Dr. Yunus Çengel Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi (University of Nevada, Reno, USA)"— Sunum transkripti:
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN ENERGY AND EXERGY TECHNOLOGIES Prof. Dr. Yunus Çengel Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi (University of Nevada, Reno, USA)
TIR Kuyruğu: %6 Tasarruf (ABD: $6.6 Milyar/yıl) Source: There are roughly 2 million tractor-trailers on American highways, says ATDynamics. Based on Energy Department figures, a 6% reduction in diesel fuel use would amount to savings of: 1.6 billion gallons a year, a reduction of about 14 million tons of CO2 emissions - and save about $6.6 billion/year. The TrailerTail developed by ATDynamics is designed to reduce the aerodynamic drag generated at the rear of trailers. By reducing turbulence at the rear of tractor- trailers, TrailerTail can raise mileage. December 28, 2012
Uçaklarda Kıvrık Kanat Uçları: %3.5 Yakıt Tasarrufu Source: 3 Mart 2013
Üniversite Kampüslerinde Enerji Verimliliği: Univ. of Washington in St.Louis’te $30 Milyon Yatırım Source: The university’s goal is to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 22% by 2020 through initiatives such as retrofitting lighting in parking garages and installing more efficient air conditioning systems. The university has saved more than $109 million since 1990 through its green initiatives. It has 7 LEED Gold, 6 LEED Silver and 2 LEED Certified buildings on campus. The university spends about $30 million annually on energy expenses, and the utility savings generated from the $30 million commitment will “pay back” the investment within 8 to 10 years. Washington University invests $30 million in energy conservation March 28, 2013
Aydınlatmada Keşfedilmeyi Bekleyen Tasarruf Hazinesi: ELEKTRONİK BALASTLAR Eski manyetik balastları elektronik yenileriyle değiştirmek suretiyle floresan aydınlatma sistemlerinde %30’a varan (hatta bazen aşan) enerji tasarrufu yapmak mümkündür. Eski tip düşük verimli floresan tüp lambaları aynı miktar ışık veren yüksek verimli yenileriyle (40 W yerine 34 W) değiştirerek de ilave tasarruf sağlanır. Elektronik balastların satın alma maliyetleri düşük, takması kolay, ve geri ödemesi hızlıdır. Elektronik balastların güç faktörü yüksektir (Cos Ø = 0.60 yerine 0.99). Şebekeden reaktif güç çekmediği için elektrik kalitesine olumsuz etki yapmaz, ve maliyet tasarrufu sağlar. Elektronik balastlar yüksek verimli oldukları için düşük sıcaklıkta çalışır. Böylelikle hem daha güvenlidir, hem de uzun ömürlüdür. Manyetik balastlardan farklı olarak elektronik balastlar ışıkta kırpışma ve vızıltı yapmaz. Değişken voltajda bile yüksek kaliteli ve sessiz ışık sağlar. Elektronik balastlar devreye girdiği anda tam verimle çalışır, ve tam kapasitede ışık sağlar. Piyasada yerli üretim ve ithal seçenekleri ile yaygın olarak bulunur.
SICAKLIKLA RENK DEĞİŞTİREN ÇATILAR
Source: BODRUM, Pasif enerji tasarruf şekli: Açık renk çatı ve duvarlar (ve ağaçlar)
Istanbul Trafik Tıkanıklığının Maliyeti: $2 Milyar/yıl
Verimlilikte Nihai Hedef: Net sıfır enerji evler Chartwell School, a private academy in California is selected as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design's (LEED) Platinum certification from the U.S. Green Building Council. The new campus has a net effect of zero pull on the electricity grid by employing a 32-kW PV system. Large windows and skylights take advantage of natural light. Source: Mercury News, CA, 29 April 2008
BİLİM veya TEKNOLOJİ TEKNOLOJİ: Suni yaprak Güneş+CO 2 +H 2 O → Enerji (sıvı yakıt) + O 2 BİLİM: Doğal Yaprak (Fotosentez) Güneş+CO 2 +H 2 O → Enerji (şeker) + O 2 “Bir resim bin kelimeye bedeldir.” ‘Bir örnek bir konferansa bedeldir.”
Yapay Yapraklar ONLY God can make a tree, the poem says. But scientists are working on making artificial leaves that can produce fuels directly from sunlight, water and carbon dioxide, just as real leaves do. One day, the new leaves could help people heat their homes and drive their cars..
Yapay Fotosentez ile Güneş enerjisinden Sıvı Yakıt
CO2+H2O+Solar Energy → Methanol Solar heat generation occurs on parabolic dishes, which reflect the light captured to a reactor, a focal point of the parabola that allows for extremely high temperature generation. At the reactor site, CO2 enters and splits due to the heat, with CO exiting through one pipe and O2 through a second. The same process applies to water, for hydrogen and oxygen. The H2 and CO can then come together to form Syngas, which in turn can be converted into methanol for fuel.
Güneş Işığından Yakıt Projesine $122 Milyon Destek (San Jone Mercury News, 23 Temmuz 2010) DOE Puts $122 Million Into Sunlight-To-Fuel Effort The San Jose Mercury News (7/24, Bohan) reports:San Jose Mercury News "The Department of Energy is putting up $122 million to help humans capture the energy of the sun and create renewable liquid fuels through 'artificial photosynthesis.” The energy department also announced that "Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology" has been selected to lead the project. Instead of yielding a simple carbohydrate, artificial photosynthesis would be designed to create oxygen and liquid fuels such as hydrocarbons or alcohols that could be directly pumped into vehicles, without additional, costly refinement.
Öğrenci-Yapımı Araç Güneş Hız Rekoru Kırdı (Popular Science, 1 Ocak 2011)
Daha İnce ve Ucuz Güneş Pilleri
Pencereler İçin Transperant PV Pilleri
Popular Science: Researchers Develop Nanosized Light-Absorbers 18 July 2013 Researchers at Stanford University developed “nanosize” light absorbers capable of absorbing nearly 100% of visible light at specific wavelengths. The material could be used to make cheaper, more efficient solar cells, among other things. Much like a guitar string, which has a resonance frequency that changes when you tune it, metal particles have a resonance frequency that can be fine-tuned to absorb a particular wavelength of light. “We tuned optical properties of our system to maximize the light absorption.”
Anında Şarj Olan Yeni Akü Tasarımı
WGN-TV Chicago (May 10, 2011) reports researchers at the University of Illinois have "succeeded in engineering a high speed performance battery that" charges almost instantly.WGN-TV Soon, an electric car would be charged in the same amount of time it takes to fill up a tank of gas. Paul Braun, a professor of Materials Science and Engineering, explained: "In a traditional battery, the electricity cannot move in and out of the battery quickly so by changing the nano structure we provide pathways for electricity, pathways for ions." Braun says the design is applicable to batteries of all types. A startup company is being formed around the technology this year, and "after the university secures the patent, they'll get the patent to the manufacturing companies, which in turn will make the batteries available to consumers." Prof. Braun says the new technology can be used in all types of batteries. Cell phones, laptops and power tools can be charged in seconds. It will be 3-5 years before these batteries are available to consumers. Anında Şarj Olan Yeni Akü Tasarımı
R&D Team to Improve Batteries for Electric/Hybrid Cars Other members for the new ‘Joint Center for Energy Storage’ include: 5 universities (Northwestern, U. Chicago, U. Illinois-Chicago, U. Illinois-Urbana Champaign, U. Michigan) 4 national labs (Lawrence Berkeley, Pacific Northwest, Sandia, SLAC National Accelerator Lab) 4 industrial partners (Dow Chemical, Applied Materials, Johnson Controls, Clean Energy Trust). The US Department of Energy chose Argonne to lead the effort after a national competition. The lab will receive up to $120 million over 5 years. car-battery-research ,0, storychicagotribune.c om/news/local/sns-ap-il individuals working on battery technology around the country will visit the Argonne hub on a regular basis. Goal: To license the inventions fostered there for commercialization. A breakthrough in battery technology would have major implications for the auto, wind and solar industries.
TÜBİTAK’ta Ar-Ge Takımları Kurma Faaliyetleri: Elektrikli Araçlar Toplantıda, elektrikli araçlarda AR-GE ve İş geliştirme konuları tartışıldı. Yapılan gurup çalışmalarında araç konsepti, segmenti, çağrı kapsamında desteklenebilecek komponentler, konsorsiyum yapısı ve iş geliştirme modeli konuları ele alındı. Teknik ve yapısal konularda görüş alışverişinde bulunuldu. TÜBİTAK Elektrikli Araçlar Toplantısı, 25 Aralık 2012’de gerçekleştirildi. Toplantıya BST Bakanlığı yetkilileri, sektörde yetkinlik sahibi kuruluşların üst düzey Ar-Ge sorumluları, konu hakkında somut çalışmaları olan akademisyenler, şemsiye kuruluşların ve STK’ların yöneticileri katıldı.
BMW, Toyota Partner On Next-Generation Batteries Toyota and BMW "aim to complete a fuel-cell vehicle system by 2020, and a concept for a mid-size sports vehicle by the end of this year. They will also work together on developing lightweight technologies such as composites, which will help make cars greener. Toyota Motor Corp. and BMW Group are working together on next-generation batteries for green vehicles called 'lithium-air' as their collaboration, first announced in late 2011, moves ahead in fuel cells, sports vehicles and other fields." team-up-on-sports-cars-battery-development/
Joint R&D in Hydrogen Cars by Ford, Daimler, Nissan Each company will invest equally in the technology. The companies will use the common fuel cell system developed to power their own vehicles. Ford: "Working together will significantly help speed this technology to market at a more affordable cost to our customers." "We will all benefit from this relationship, as the resulting solution will be better than any one company working alone." Ford is joining with Daimler and Renault-Nissan to speed development of cars that run on hydrogen, with hopes of bringing a vehicle to market in 4 years – by Daimler-Nissan-to-research-hydrogen-cars php January 27, 2013
An electron microscope image shows platinum accumulated on a layer of gold Ultrathin Layers of Platinum Could Help Make Hydrogen Cars Affordable A fast and easy way to deposit platinum could reduce the amount of the precious metal needed for fuel cells. By Kevin Bullis on December 6, 2012 A new method for quickly and cheaply depositing ultrathin layers of platinum might make it practical to reduce the amount of platinum used in fuel cells, thereby lowering the cost of fuel cells significantly. Current methods for applying atom-thick layers of platinum are slow and complicated. The new approach is said to be incredibly cheap and easy to implement (NIST). The researchers "showed that platinum dissolved in a solution can be deposited on a gold surface in one-atom thick layers by alternately applying a positive and negative voltage. The negative voltage causes two things: first, an atom-thick layer of platinum forms; and second, once those atoms are in place, a layer of hydrogen forms, thus preventing any more platinum from accumulating. HİDROJENLİ ARABALAR
ENERJİDE GENETİK TEKNOLOJİLER
GDO Maya Bakterisi ile Etanol Üretimi Yeast Engineered To Convert Xylose Into Ethanol. The AP (6 Jan 2011) reports Professor Yong-Su Jin of the University of Illinois "says a yeast long used in brewing and baking has the potential to produce ethanol more quickly and efficiently."AP Jin engineered the yeast to create ethanol from xylose, also known as wood sugar. "Jin says the yeast normally would act on glucose and leave the xylose alone, unless an expensive enzyme is added. But he says he has been able to modify the yeast so the enzyme is not needed."
Mikroptan Elektrik The discovery about the exact structure of the bacteria and their atom-sized wires would permit researchers to design electrodes with better contacts to pick up the charges, let off by the microbes to avoid a build-up of electricity.
Hayvan Yağından Biyoyakıt (NASA) (Biofuels for jet engines are cleaner-burning, and release fewer pollutants into the air)
Termoelektrik Güç Üretimi 41
Termoelektrik Güç Üretiminde Gelişmeler
RÜZGAR VE KÖMÜR
Incremental Innovation: Gearless Wind Turbines
Transformative Innovation (makes old technology obsolete): Wind Turbines with no blades Dutch researchers have created a bladeless wind turbine with no moving parts that produces electricity using charged water droplets." the Electrostatic WInd Energy CONverter "creates electrical energy directly from wind energy. It does this through the displacement of charged particles by the wind in the opposite direction of an electrical field." 3 April 2013 The technology was created by Delft University of Technology. A scale model of the Ewicon has been developed by Mecanoo Architects and is located in front of the faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science at Delft University of Technology.". Source:
Ucuz ve Kirli Kömürden Temiz Doğal Gaz (Çin)
YENİ TEKNOLOJİ GELİŞİMİ
-150˚C ve 50 Bar’da LNG Türbini 0.28 m 3 /s debi ve - 150˚C’de LNG basıncını 50 Bar’dan 10 Bar’a düşüren vananın türbin ile değiştirilmesi sonucu: 900 kW Elektrik Üretimi $800,000/yıl tasarruf Türbin fiatı: $1 milyon Geri ödeme: ~ 1 yıl
Yeni Bir Motor Tasarımı: Kelebek Motor (Hakan Eğne ve Barış Açıkgöz; Yunus Cengel)
Enerjide UÇUK FİKİRLER Programı ($400 milyon) “ Energy Department To Launch Innovation Agency, Announce Grants.”
Popular Science: NANO-FIREFLY TECH COULD MAKE LIGHTS THAT NEED NO ELECTRICITYNANO-FIREFLY TECH COULD MAKE LIGHTS THAT NEED NO ELECTRICITY Researchers from Syracuse Univ are studying how fireflies make their own light in an attempt to reproduce that type of energy. Chemistry Professor Mathew Maye has been working with an enzyme taken from the insect. That enzyme combined with a chemical produced in the laboratory creates a glowing light.“ Maye "attached genetically modified luciferase to a core of nanorods made from cadmium- based semiconductor material. 19 June 2012 Then the researchers added the luciferin, which serves as a fuel for the fiery glow" and when "the chemicals interact, they release energy, which is transferred to the nanorod. That's what actually makes the nanorod glow."
Yeni Aydınlatma Teknolojisi: Ucuz ve Verimli "The light offers all of these features while being as energy efficient as today's most efficient lighting technologies, according to the developers. David Carroll, professor of physics at Wake Forest University,” says his new bulb is cheap to make and he has a 'corporate partner' interested in manufacturing the device." Dr. Carroll "believes the first production runs will take place in 2013 Researchers at Wake Forest University have developed a field- induced polymer elecroluminescent (FIPEL) lighting technology that silently gives off a soft, white glow, sans the annoying hum and yellow tint of fluorescent bulbs or the sharp, bluish hue of LED light fixtures. The lighting uses layers of plastic packed with nanomaterials that glow when an electric current is introduced. Not only does it quietly project soft, white light, it's also shatterproof, low- temperature, and can be molded into almost any shape. Voices/2012/1203/New-plastic-lighting-saves-energy.- Goodbye-fluorescent-lights
GLOBAL COMPETITION FOR BEST MINDS
Reversing the Brain Drain: Exploting Diaspora 56
Brazil: Sending 101,000 students to Study Abroad Source:
Going Where the Action is/Brains are: Samsung launches Silicon Valley incubator Samsung opened the doors of a startup and entrepreneurship incubator/accelerator nestled in the heart of Silicon Valley. Samsung will also open a new Samsung Strategy and Innovation Center in Palo Alto, and incubators in other tech hubs such as New York, Austin, Boston, Russia, and Israel. Samsung Ventures America is a $1 billion fund. 7/12/samsung-launches- silicon-valley-incubator/ July 11, 2013
Acquisitions: Quick Access to Technology (China) Microsoft will acquire Nokia's devices and services unit and license the company's mapping services in a deal worth $7.2 billion in a bid to bolster the company's position in the smartphone market. The software giant will pay $5 billion for "substantially all" of Nokia's phone unit and another $2.2 billion to license its patents.
Global bilek güreşi/yarışı: Bükemediğin eli SATIN AL OYAK Grubu, 2012 yılında aynı alanlarda faaliyet gösteren Akdeniz Kimya'yı da satın almıştı. Açıklamada "OYAK, Akdeniz Kimya ve Chemson AG şirketleri ile polimer katkı maddeleri arasında önemli bir yer tutan ve PVC mamul üretiminde vazgeçilmez unsur olan PVC stabilizatörleri alanında dünya lideri konumuna ulaşmıştır" denildi. Avusturya'daki tesislerine ilaveten İngiltere, ABD, Brezilya, Çin ve Avustralya'da üretim tesisleri bulunan Chemson'un Almanya, Hollanda ve Singapur'da satış ofisleri bulunuyor. Erisim 12Kasim2013 OYAK, Avusturya merkezli kimya şirketi Chemson AG'nin hisselerini satın aldı
BRAINPOWER FIRST: SILICON VALLEY Silicon Valley is just the ground of brain power and creative thinking, not the source. Silicon valley is merely the field where the orchards of creativity that blossomed in the garages of houses are planted. “Knowledge and skills now stand alone as only the source of comparative advantage. Silicon Valley and Route 128 are where they are, simply because that is where the brain power is.” - Lester Thurow, MIT Economist “In the U.S. immigrants have founded 52% of Silicon Valley’s companies and created millions of jobs.” (Vivek Wadhwa, Washington Post, Oct. 4, 2011).Vivek Wadhwa
A MUST for STI Ecosystem: PROPER CLIMATE ECOSYSTEM in GREENHOUSES: Fertilizer, water + Proper climate (Temp, humidity, sun) 27°C %70 RH Sun Freedom of expression, Safe environment, Respecting differences, Risk taking GROWING PLANTSGROWING TECHNOLOGY STI ECOSYSTEM: R&D spending, human capital + Proper climate (personal/societal rights and freedoms, democratic environment, free expression, being different, creativity, innovation, entrepreneurship, risk taking, venture capital, team work, safe environment, center of attraction for brains, … )
CREATIVITY: The Secret for Success This innate ability can be activated and mined, but it is not something that can be taught. “America is the greatest engine of innovation that has ever existed, and it can’t be duplicated anytime soon, because it is a product of multiple factors: - Extreme freedom of thought, - an emphasis on independent thinking, - a steady immigration of new minds, - a risk taking culture with no stigma attached to trying and failing, - a noncorrupt bureaucracy, - and financial markets and a venture capital system that are unrivalled at taking new ideas and turning them into global products.” - Thomas Friedman, NY Times, March 07, 2004.
CLASSICAL EDUCATION vs. CREATIVE THINKING “In Asia, the students often have test scores that soar beyond those of their counterparts in the West. However, much of that learning is book learning and rote memorization, which will take you only to a certain level. To reach the higher levels of science and technology, you need creativity, imagination, and innovation, which the Eastern system does not nurture.” (Michio Kaku, Physics of the Future, Doubleday, New York, 2011, p. 323).
IMAGINATION: WORKSHOP of CHANGE Humans are IMAGINING beings. People are as big as their imaginations. A basic trait of humans is to bring a non- existing thing into existence in the world of imagination. Imagination and creativity form the foundation of innovation. Bringing the things in the world of imagination into physical world is done with skill and knowledge. Animals move with their instincts while people go after their dreams. Einstein: “Imagination is more important than knowledge.”